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PEARCE, Charles

( The philosopher, logician, mathematician and naturalist.)

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Biography PEARCE, Charles
Born September 10, 1839 in Cambridge (pc. Massachusetts) in the family of professor of mathematics and astronomy at Harvard University Benjamin Pierce. He graduated from Harvard College in 1859. In 1860, after a year in the United States Coast Guard, began to study chemistry at the Lawrence Scientific School, graduating in 1863. In 1861, newly enlisted in the Coast Guard, helping his father. He has also worked in the university observatory in scientific works which appeared his first scientific publication on the photometry. He made several scientific discoveries in the field of mathematics, physics, geodesy and spectroscopy. I have read several courses of lectures at Harvard (on the history of science and logic, Modern Times, 1870-1871), Johns Hopkins University (1879-1884), Lowell Institute. In 1867, he was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, in 1877 the National Academy of Sciences, and in 1880 in London Mathematical Society. Author of numerous papers (in mathematics, physics, chemistry, philology, philosophy, history and religion, history, philosophy, logic, etc.), most of which remained unfinished and unpublished during his lifetime (in 30-50-ies 20 in. in the United States had taken 8-volume critical edition of Peirce's work). In fact, it was completed only one big work - Great logic (The Grand Logic). Upon his retirement in 1891, Pierce lived on a farm near Milford (pc. Pennsylvania), supported by friends, notably William James. Pierce died near Milford April 19, 1914.
The most profound influence on Pierce had Kant, who, in his view, was able to put all the important philosophical issues. Descartes, he considered responsible for the spread of modern nominalism. Favored the Duns Scotus. The philosophy of Peirce considered a subclass of the science of discovery, which, in turn, is part of theoretical science. The function of philosophy - to give an explanation of the unity of diversity that exists in the universe. Every philosophy begins with the logic (the relation of signs to objects) and phenomenology (the experience of perception of the objective world).

Like many other scientists in the late 19., Pierce internally deeply worried the situation of religious strife that followed the publication of Darwin. Without accepting the dogmatic theology, and at the same time assuming, . that science should not necessarily be linked to atheism, . Pierce tried to create a philosophical system, . which would take account of the methods and results of science and which at the same time would be compatible with Christianity,
. To achieve this goal, he considered it necessary first to transform metaphysics into a rigorous science, and then prove that science itself presupposes a metaphysical doctrine, which is not incompatible with religion. Sam Pierce admitted the main result in the reduction of metaphysics to the three main categories: primary (pure possible quality, or spirit), secondary (the objective external world, or matter) and tertiary (the world of general concepts, evolution). (In earlier works: quality, relation, representation, or - quality, repulsion, mediation.)

Rebuilding metaphysics, Peirce first tried to get rid of dogmatism and confusion, which brought her notoriety. Adhering to the principle that the scientific method is the only true method of obtaining knowledge, Peirce defined 'reality' as something that would open an infinite process of scientific research. This definition has led to the formulation of 'principle Fallibilism' (fallibility), . which at any given time, our knowledge of reality is partial and tentative, . it is a point in the continuum of uncertainty and uncertainty,
. To metaphysics could enter into the realm of knowledge, or reality, Pearce needed a criterion for distinguishing between issues that are solvable by using the scientific method, and those issues with it can not be resolved. This test he formulated in 1878 in the famous principle of pragmatism: 'think about what impact that may have practical significance, will, in our view, have before us an object. Our understanding of these effects is our understanding of the given object '. In another wording: 'To set the submission, . we must consider, . practical implications for the need to take place, . if this idea will be true, the sum of these effects will be the full meaning of this representation ',
. In the modern language of the principle of pragmatism can be expressed as follows: the meaning of judgments lies in its logical (or physical) consequences.

Pierce has had a significant influence on William James. However, Peirce himself believed that the views of James had nothing to do with his own, and even coined the term 'pragmatitsizm' to distinguish his theory from the theory of James. For James, . according Pearce, . pragmatism 'means, . that the purpose of man is to work ', . while Pierce himself suggested pragmatism 'as a theory of logical analysis, . or the true definition of 'and considered him' dignity naiprevoshodneyshimi applied to the supreme metaphysical theories',

Pierce works on logic and scientific method occupy a prominent place in the philosophy of the 19. The most important results were obtained in the logic, . where he made a number of new ideas, . concerning propositional calculus, . theory implication, . resolution methods in the logic of the proposals, . logic relations, . Logical paradoxes, . logical semantics, . valued logic, etc.,
. Pierce made a significant contribution to the theory of probability. Its significant results in the study of logic as a scientific method, he developed a new concept of 'abduction', . or 'retroduktsii' (hypothesis as the only logical procedure of introduction - the formation and adoption of, . after test, . - New knowledge), . and induction, . which should serve as a supplement to the law of logical deduction as a method,

Study of problems of mathematical logic has led to the development of Peirce's general theory of signs, including sign language. He outlined (first in the articles of the 1860) foundations of the science of signs, which he called semiotics (he spoke and wrote 'semeyotika' and thereafter, the term 'semiotics', at one time competed with the term 'semiology', has become common

. Pierce suggested that a widely known classification marks, . highlighting: (1) iconic, . or figurative marks, . in which the signifying and the signified have some similarities with each other, (2) signs indexes (they index, . Indication, . or deictic signs), . in which the signifying and signified those otherwise linked by contiguity; often this relationship is causal and / or demonstrative in nature - so, . trace indicates that, . who left it, . the smoke - the fire, . from which it derives), and (3) signs, symbols, . or symbolic signs, . in which the signifying and the signified are connected only accepted in this society and / or culture of the conditional agreement (see,
. SIGN). Pierce pointed out the importance of developing the syntax characters. He also belongs to distinguish the type (type) and instance (token)

. Semiotic ideas Pierce, . published in journals, . far from the circle reading linguists, . to the same written language dire, . long been little known outside the U.S., regardless of his similar ideas put forward F.de Saussure, . came to him not of mathematical logic, . and from linguistics,
. Peirce's concept has been adapted for the general reader and developed in the 1930 Charles W. Morris, who actually provided her worldwide fame, and most Pearce - the status of the founder of semiotics. However, this was achieved at the cost of extraction of semiotic ideas of Peirce's broad philosophical context, significantly different from the views of both F.de Saussure and Charles Morris). Important role in popularizing the ideas of Pierce also played Jakobson.

He built the original system of the evolution of space on three principles: 1) continuity ( 'sinehizma'), 2) indeterministichnosti ( 'tihizma'), 3) relationship between the spiritual aspirations ( 'agapizma'). The universe evolves from an existing non-existent, from the primeval chaos in the direction of love and order, to the increasing rationality.

Pierce was convinced that his metaphysical system is compatible with Christianity. He tried to show that the evolution in his understanding is consistent with the Gospel and that we have empirical knowledge of God. Pierce - author of an ethical principle, which states that the limited duration of existence of finite beings is logically requires the identification of our interests with unlimited existing community of individuals and things.

The best known are two of Pierce: Rationale views (The Fixation of Belief, 1877) and How to make our thoughts clear (How to Make Our Ideas Clear, 1878). His work has also been published in 6 volumes of Collected Papers (Collected Papers, 1931-1935) and an additional 2-volume Collected Works (1958).

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