I the Great
(1672-1725), Tsar of Russia from 1682 (reigned 1689), Russia's first emperor (from 1721), the youngest son of Alexei Mikhailovich. Held public administration reform (created Senate panel, the higher bodies of state control and political investigation, the church is subject to the State; held division of the country into provinces, built a new capital of St. Petersburg
). Used the experience of Western European countries in the development of industry, trade, culture. Pursued a policy of mercantilism (the creation of factories, metallurgical, mining and other plants, shipyards, marinas, canals). He headed the army in the Azov campaigns of 1695-1696, Northern War 1700-21, Prut campaign of 1711, the Persian campaign of 1722-23, and others, commanded troops in the capture of NцTteborg (1702), in the battles of D. Wood (1708) and at Poltava (1709). Supervised the construction of the fleet and the establishment of the regular army. Contributed to enhanced economic and political situation of the nobility. At the initiative of Peter
I opened many schools, the Academy of Sciences, passed the civil alphabet and T. d. The reforms of Peter
I were cruel means, . by the extreme pressure of human and material forces, . oppression of the masses (the head tax, etc.), . which resulted in the uprising (Musketeers 1698, . Astrakhan 1705-06, . Bulavin 1707-09, etc.), . ruthlessly suppressed by the Government,
. As the creator of a powerful absolute state, gained recognition for the countries of West Russia. Europe's credibility as a great
I the Great
[30 May (9 June) 1672, Moscow 28 January (8 February) 1725, St. Petersburg
], Russia's emperor. The son of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich of the second marriage with H. K. Naryshkina (cm. Naryshkins).
Childhood, youth, education
Having lost his father in 1676, Peter
was brought up to ten years under the supervision of the elder brother of Tsar Fedor Alekseevich, who chose for his teacher clerk Nikita Zotov, a boy learning to read and write. When Fyodor died in 1682, was supposed to inherit the throne of Ivan, but because it has poor health, supporters Naryshkins proclaimed king of Peter
. However Miloslavsky, relatives of the first wife of Alexei Mikhailovich, along with this and provoked strelets rebellion, during which ten Peter
had witnessed the brutal massacre of the people close to him. These events left an indelible imprint on the memory of the boy made an impact on his mental health, and outlook. The result of the rebellion was a political compromise: on the throne had been erected along Ivan and Peter
, a ruler named their eldest sister, Princess Sophia Alexeyevna. Since that time Peter
and his mother lived mostly in villages and Transfiguration Izmailov, appearing in the Kremlin, only for official ceremonies, and their relationship with Sophia became increasingly hostile. Neither the secular nor the ecclesiastical systematic education the future king has not received. It was left to himself, and agile and energetic, a lot of time spent in games with peers. Later, he was allowed to create their own 'amusement' shelves, with whom he played the battle and maneuvers, and which subsequently became the basis of the Russian regular army. In Izmailovo Peter
discovered the old English boat, which at his command, repaired and tested on the river. Yauza. Soon he found himself in the German settlement (cm. Kukui), which was first introduced to the European way of life, experienced a first heart hobbies and started making friends among the European merchants. Gradually, Peter
has developed around the company of friends, with whom he spent all his spare time. In August 1689, when before he heard about the preparation of the new Sophia musketeers revolt, he fled to the Holy Trinity Monastery, which to him had come from Moscow's loyal regiments and part of the yard. Sofia, feeling that the force on the side of his brother, attempted reconciliation, but it was too late: she was removed from power and imprisoned in the Novodevichy Monastery.
In the second half of the 17 in. Russia experienced a deep crisis of the socio-economic backwardness of the advanced countries of Europe. Peter
with his energy, curiosity, interest in everything new was the man capable of solving problems facing the country. But first he entrusted the management of the country mother and uncle, L. K. Naryshkin (cm. Naryshkins). The king still have not been to Moscow, although in 1689 at the insistence of the mother married E. F. Lopukhina. Peter
attracted marine amusement, and he went for a long time in Pereslavl-Zaleski and the Arkhangelsk, where he participated in the construction and testing of spacecraft. Only in 1695 he decided to take authentic military campaign against the Turkish fortress of Azov. First Azov campaign ended in failure, then in Voronezh was hastily built fleet, and during the second campaign (1696) Azov was captured. At the same time was founded Taganrog. This was the first victory of the young Peter
, significantly strengthen its authority. Shortly after returning to the capital went to the king (1697) with the Great
Embassy abroad. Peter
went to Holland, England, Saxony, Austria and Venice, he studied shipbuilding, working in shipyards, acquainted with the technical achievements of the then Europe, its way of life, political structure. During his trip abroad was laid foundation of the union of Russia, Poland and Denmark against Sweden. The news about the new Streltsi revolt led Peter
to return to Russia (1698), where he dealt with extraordinary brutality with the rebels (cm. Musketeers uprising of 1698).
The first transformation
While abroad, mainly formed political program of Peter
. Its ultimate goal was the establishment of regular police state based on universal service to him, the state understood as 'common good'. Sam King considered himself the first servant of the fatherland, which is its own example had to teach subjects. Unconventional behavior of Peter
, . one hand, . destroyed over the centuries the emerging image of the emperor as a sacred figure, . the other caused an outcry from parts of society (especially the Old Believers, . which Peter
persecuted), . who saw in the king the Antichrist.,
. The reforms of Peter
began with the introduction of foreign dress and shave their beards to all orders, except the peasants and the clergy
. So initially, Russian society was divided into two unequal parts: one (the nobility and the tip of the urban population) was intended implanted above Europeanized culture, the other retained the traditional way of life. In 1699 was also reformed calendar. In Amsterdam, was founded a publishing house for publication of secular books in Russian, was founded the first Russian Order of St.. Apostle Andrew. Country badly in need of their own skilled personnel, and the king ordered to send for training abroad of young men from noble families. In 1701 in Moscow was opened Navigational School. Started and the reform of urban governance. After the death of Patriarch Adrian in 1700 to elect a new patriarch did not, and Peter
created the monastic order to control the church farm. Later, instead of the patriarch was established rule Synodal church sohranyavshesya to 1917. Simultaneously with the first change was intensely preparing for war with Sweden, which previously signed a peace treaty with Turkey.
. Lessons from the Great
. The war, the main purpose of which was securing Russia on the Baltic Sea, began with the defeat of the Russian army at Narva in 1700
. However, this lesson went to Peter
in store: he realized, . that the reason for the defeat especially in the backwardness of Russian Army, . and with even greater
energy set out to re-establish regular regiments and, . first by collecting 'datochnyh people', . and since 1705 by introducing a levy of duties,
. The construction of metallurgical plants and weapons supplied to the army high quality guns and small arms. Hike Swedish troops under King Charles XII of Poland allowed the Russian army won its first victory over the enemy, seize and devastate a large part of the Baltic. In 1703 at the mouth of the Neva Peter
founded St. Petersburg
the new capital of Russia, which intended the king was to be a model city-'paradizom '. During these years, the Boyar Duma replaced consisting of members of the entourage king Consiglio ministers, along with Moscow's orders in St. Petersburg
to create new institutions. In 1708 the country was divided into provinces. In 1709, after the Battle of Poltava turning point in the war and the king was able to focus more on domestic political affairs.
. Management Reform
. In 1711, starting the Prut campaign, Peter
founded the Government Senate, which had the functions of chief executive, judicial and legislative branches
. From 1717 began the establishment of boards of central bodies of sectoral management, based fundamentally different than staromoskovskie orders. The new government executive, financial, judicial and control established and field. In 1720 the General Rules was issued detailed instructions for the organization of new institutions. In 1722 Peter
signed the Table of Ranks, which determined the organization of military and civil service, and which operated until 1917. Even earlier, in 1714, issued a decree on primogeniture, equating the rights of owners of estates and estates. It was important for the formation of Russia's nobility as a single full-class. But of paramount importance for the social sphere had tax reform, begun in 1718. In Russia, the head tax was introduced to the males, which were regular census ( 'audit shower'). In the course of reform has been eliminated from the social category of slaves, and refinement of the social status of some other categories of the population. In 1721, after the Northern War, Russia was declared an empire, and the Senate honored the titles of Peter
' and 'Father of the fatherland'.
. Transformations in the economy
I clearly understood the need to overcome technical backwardness of Russia and they facilitated the development of Russian industry and trade, including foreign
. He enjoyed the patronage of many merchants and industrialists, among which the most famous Demidov. It was built many new factories, new industries. However, its development in wartime conditions led to the development of priority sectors of heavy industry, which after the war without the support of the State could no longer. Indeed enserfed situation of the urban population, high taxes, forced the closure of the Arkhangelsk port and some other government measures are not conducive to the development of foreign trade. In general, lasted for 21 years exhausting war, . required large capital, . obtained mainly through the emergency tax, . led to the impoverishment of the actual population, . mass flight of peasants, . ruin traders and industrialists.,
. Transformations in the field of culture
. Time of Peter
I is an active penetration of Russian life elements of secular westernized culture
. Began to appear secular schools, founded the first Russian newspaper. The success of the service delivered to Peter
nobles in dependence on education. Special Decree of the king were introduced Assembly, representing the new Russia's form of communication between people. Of particular importance was the construction of the stone of St. Petersburg
, which was attended by foreign architects and which was carried out on the plan developed by the king. They created a new urban environment with unfamiliar forms of life before, pastime. Changed interior decoration of homes, lifestyles, food composition and pr. Gradually formed in the medium evolved a different system of values, worldview, aesthetic ideas. In 1724 was founded the Academy of Sciences (opened in 1725).
Personal life King
On his return from the Embassy of Peter
finally broke with the hated his first wife. Later, he met with the prisoner Lett Martha Skavronskaia (the future Empress Catherine I), which was married in 1712. She bore him several children, of whom survived only daughter Anna and Elizabeth (the future Empress Elizabeth). Peter
, apparently, was very attached to his second wife in 1724 and crowned her imperial crown, intending to bequeath to her throne. However, shortly before his death, he learned about the betrayal of his wife s. Monceau. Not folded and relations with the king's son from his first marriage, Prince Alexei Petrovich, who was killed when not fully clarify the circumstances in the Peter
and Paul Fortress in 1718. Peter
himself died of the disease urinary organs, without leaving a will.
Results of the Petrine reforms
Most important result of Peter
's transformation was overcoming the crisis of traditionalism through modernization of the country. Russia became a full member of international relations, an active foreign policy. Significantly increased Russia's prestige in the world, as Peter
himself was the model for many of the sovereign reformer. When Peter
laid the foundations of Russian national culture. The king also established a system of management and administrative-territorial division of the country that had prevailed for a long time. However, the main instrument for reform was violence. Petrine reforms not only failed to save the country from the previously established system of social relations, embodied in serfdom, but, conversely, preserved and strengthened its institutions. This was the main contradiction of Peter
's reforms, the prerequisites for the future of the new crisis.
. Life Story
. CHRONOLOGY OF THE LIFE AND ACTS
. Literature devoted to Peter I the Great