Henri Becquerel (Becquerel)( French physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1903)
Comments for Henri Becquerel (Becquerel)
Biography Henri Becquerel (Becquerel)
December 15, 1852, Mr.. - August 25, 1908
French physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel was born in Paris. His father, Alexander Edmond, and his grandfather, Antoine Cesar, was well-known scientists, professors of physics at the Museum of Natural History in Paris and members of the French Academy of Sciences. B. received his secondary education at the LycцLe Louis le Grand, and in 1872. entered the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris. Two years later he transferred to the High School of bridges and roads, where he studied engineering and has taught and conducted independent research. In 1875, Mr.. He began studying the effects of magnetism on linearly polarized light, and the following year began his teaching career as a lecturer at the Ecole Polytechnique. He received a degree in technical sciences in the Graduate School of bridges and roads in 1877. and began working at the National Directorate of bridges and roads. A year later, B. became assistant to his father at the Museum of Natural History, while continuing to work at the Ecole Polytechnique and the Office of bridges and roads.
B. collaborated with his father for four years, writing a series of articles about the temperature of the Earth. After its own investigation of linearly polarized light in 1882, B. continued study of his father in the field of luminescence, non-thermal radiation of light. In the mid 1880-s. B. also developed a new method of spectrum analysis, sets of waves of different lengths emitted by light source. In 1888. He received his doctorate awarded to him at the Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Paris for his thesis on the absorption of light in crystals.
In 1892, a year after his father's death, B. his successor as head of the department of physics at the Conservatoire of arts and crafts, as well as a similar chair at the Museum of Natural History in Paris. Two years later, B. became chief engineer in the Office of bridges and roads, and in 1895. received the chair of physics at the Ecole Polytechnique.
In 1895, Mr.. German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen discovered the radiation, . have higher energy and penetrating, . known today as X-rays, . encountered, . when the cathode rays (electrons), . emitted by the negative electrode (cathode) electron vacuum tube, . strike in another part of the lamp during the high-voltage discharge,
. Since the incident cathode rays also cause luminescence, . when they hit the lamp, . it was erroneously assumed, . that luminescence, . and X-rays produced by the same mechanism and that the luminescence can be accompanied by X-rays,
. Intrigued by this, B. decided to find out whether the luminescent material activated by light, not the cathode rays, also emit X-rays. Was placed on photographic plates, . wrapped in thick black paper, . Luminescent material, . available to him under the arm - uranyl potassium sulphate (one of the salts of uranium), . - And within a few hours the package exposed to sunlight,
. Then he discovered that the radiation passed through the paper and will affect the photographic plate, which clearly indicates that the uranium salt emitted rays, as well as light, after was irradiated with sunlight. However, to the surprise of BA, it was found that the same thing happened when a package placed in a dark place, without exposure to sunlight. BA, apparently watching the result of the impact is not X-rays, and a new kind of ionizing radiation emitted radiation without an external source.
Over the next few months, B. repeat its experience with other known fluorescent substances and found that some compounds of uranium emit only open them to the spontaneous emission. In addition, nelyuminestsentnye uranium compounds emitted radiation is similar, and therefore it was not associated with luminescence. In May 1896,. B. conducted experiments with pure uranium and found that photographic plates showed a degree of exposure, which is three to four times the radiation originally used uranium salts. Mysterious radiation, which is clearly inherent in uranium properties, it became known as the Becquerel rays.
In the next few years thanks to research B. and other scientists were, inter alia, found that the radiation power, apparently, does not decrease with time. Since 1900. B. concluded that these rays consist of electrons partially open in 1897. J. Thomson, as components of cathode rays. Pupil B., Marie Curie discovered that thorium also emits Becquerel rays, and renamed them in the radioactivity. She and her husband, Pierre Curie, after careful research discovered two new radioactive elements - polonium (named in honor of the motherland Marie Curie - Poland) and radium.
B. and the Curies received in 1903. Nobel Prize in Physics. Sam B. Special mention was made "in recognition of his outstanding achievements, reflected in the opening of spontaneous radioactivity". In welcoming speech, which spoke on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences X.R. Terneblad, three winners are widely credited with having proved: 'the existence of special types of radiation that until now were known only by electrical discharges in rarefied gas, are natural and widespread phenomenon'. Terneblad added that as a result have been obtained 'new methods that allow, under certain conditions, to study the existence of matter in nature. Finally, found a new source of energy, full interpretation of which is yet to come '.
B. married in 1874,. at Lucy Zoe Marie Jamin, daughter of a professor of physics. Four years later his wife died during childbirth, producing a son, Jean, their only child, who later became a physicist. In 1890, Mr.. B. married Louise DцLsirцLe Laurier. After receiving the Nobel Prize, he continued his teaching and research work. B. in Le CROISIC (Brittany) during a trip with his wife in her patrimony.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, B. been awarded numerous honors, . including Rumford medal, . awarded by the Royal Society (1900), . Helmholtz medal of the Berlin Royal Academy of Sciences (1901) and Barnard medal of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (1905),
. He was elected a member of the French Academy of Sciences in 1899, and in 1908. became one of its Permanent Secretary. B. was also a member of the French Physical Society, the Italian National Academy of Sciences, the Berlin Royal Academy of Sciences, the American National Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society of London.