Gerd Binnig (Binnig), Gerd( German physicist. Nobel Prize in Physics, 1986)
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Biography Gerd Binnig (Binnig), Gerd
genus. July 20, 1947
German physicist Gerd Karl Binnig was born in Frankfurt in the family of Karl Franz Binning, plant engineer, and Ruth (nee Brake) Binnig, draftsman. After completing secondary education in the school of Rudolf Koch, he received his doctorate in physics for work on superconductivity at the Frankfurt University in 1978
Immediately after receiving the degree of B. became research associate research laboratory in the corporation 'International Business meshins' (IBM) in Zurich, Switzerland. Here he began to cooperate with investigations into the surface materials. Scientists turned to this problem involved the fact that the first complete analysis of the surface materials have, in fact, failed. The difficulty lay in the fact that the arrangement of atoms on a solid surface differs significantly from their location within it, so that the well-known research methods are useless when it comes to the surface. However, the surface is of great interest, because this is where the majority of interactions between bodies.
To study the surface of materials B. and Rohrer decided to use a version of the quantum-mechanical effect known as tunneling. This effect was first experimentally confirmed in 1960, is one of the ways in which appears the so-called Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. According to this principle, named after the German physicist Werner Heisenberg, it is impossible to measure simultaneously the position and velocity of an elementary particle. As a result, the position of such particles as the electron, 'smeared' in space: a particle behaves like a fuzzy cloud of matter. This material may cloud 'tunnel' or difundirovat between two surfaces, even if they do not touch, much like how water can seep through the soil from one pond to another.
. The tunnel effect was well known to the time when B
. and Rohrer began to work together, and even used - although sometimes rudely - in the study of the nature of surface interactions in the 'sandwich' of materials. All that remained to make B. and Rohrer, so it allow electrons to tunnel through the vacuum, and this idea proved to be unexpectedly fruitful. Their approach led eventually to the creation of a new instrument called a scanning tunneling microscope. The basic principle behind this device, includes scanning of solid surfaces in a vacuum with a thin tip of the needle. Between the tip and the sample voltage is applied, and the distance between them is maintained so small that electrons can tunnel through it. Emerge at the end the flow of electrons is called the tunneling current. The magnitude of the tunneling current depends exponentially on the distance between the sample and the tip of the needle. Consequently, running the needle on the model and measuring the current, it is possible to map the surface in atomic scale.
B. Rohrer and first successfully tested tunneling microscope in the spring of 1981. Together with two other employees to IBM, Christoph Gerber and Edmund Veybelem they were able to distinguish the features of height only one atom on the surface of calcium-iridium-tin crystals. A similar unit was established earlier and independently American physicist Russell Young of the National Bureau of Standards United States with a slightly different principle, which provided much lower resolution.
. In developing the scanning tunneling microscope, a group of IBM met with considerable difficulties: first of all had to eliminate all sources of vibration noise
. The vertical position of the scanning tip must be controlled to within a percentage of diameter of an atom, since the tunnel current depends strongly on the distance between the tip and the sample. Street noises and even steps could cause the shaking of a thin device. First B. and Rohrer decided to meet the challenge, hung microscope using permanent magnets on the bowl of a superconducting lead, set on a heavy stone table. Table itself are isolated from the laboratory building with inflatable rubber tires. To move the needle tip with high accuracy, are used piezoelectric materials, which are compressed or expanded, if they are to make the appropriate voltage. As a result of further improvements in the scanning tunneling microscope can now resolve the vertical dimensions of up to 0.1 angstrom (1 stomilliardnaya of a meter, or roughly about one-tenth the diameter of a hydrogen atom). Horizontal Resolution in 2 angstrom achieved through the use of scanning tip of the width of only a few atoms, and the ends of the width of 1 atom being developed. Once in the design of a scanning tunneling microscope, improvements have been made, it has become commonplace tool in many research laboratories. In vacuum, this tool is effective and in many other environments, including air, water and cryogenic liquids. It is used to study different samples, different from inorganic substances, in particular viruses.
B. and Rohrer shared in 1986. half of the Nobel Prize in Physics "for his invention of the scanning tunneling microscope '. The other half received the Ernst Ruska Prize for his work on electron microscope. Received the B. and Rohrer, the representative of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said: 'Obviously, this technique promises a great deal and that we still have seen only the beginning of its development. Many research groups in various areas of science now use a scanning tunneling microscope. The study of surfaces is an important part of physics, especially necessary in semiconductor physics and microelectronics. In the chemistry of surface reactions also play an important role, for example in catalysis. You can also record the organic molecules on the surface and study their structure. Among other applications of this technique can be used to study DNA molecules'. Remembering that he felt upon learning of the award, B. said: 'It was wonderful and awful at the same time', as it was recognition of the great success, but it also meant the end of 'spectacular opening'.
In 1969. B. married to Laura Vagler, psychologists, their daughter and son.
In studies B. interested in skiing, soccer, tennis, golf and sailing. A talented musician, he composes music, plays the violin and guitar and sings. Since 1986. is a Member of the IBM, ie. is one of the highest academic positions in the corporation.
B. and Heinrich Rohrer received for his work, except the Nobel Prize and other awards. In 1984. They shared the prize Hewlett-Packard European Physical Society and the international scientific prize of King Faisal and the Saudi government for its efforts to create a scanning tunneling microscope. B. also awarded the Physics Prize Germanskogo Physical Society (1982).