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BROWN (Braun), Ferdinand

( German physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1909)

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Biography BROWN (Braun), Ferdinand
June 6, 1850, Mr.. - April 20, 1918
German physicist and inventor Karl Ferdinand Braun was born in g. Fulda, in the family of Conrad Brown and Francis (Goring) Brown. After graduating from the local high school, he studied at the University of Marburg, and then performed his doctoral work in physics at the University of Berlin. Here, under the leadership of the German physicist Georg Quincke, he wrote a dissertation on the vibrations of elastic rods and strings and. received his doctorate in 1872. When in the same year Quincke accepted the appointment to the post in the University of Wц+rzburg, B. followed him as his assistant. In 1874,. B. became director of the Thomas Gymnasium in Leipzig. Then he opened the properties of mineral crystals, metal sulfides such as galena and pyrite, conduct electricity only in one direction. Five decades later the laws discovered by BA, were used in crystal set.
In 1876, Mr.. B. returned to Marburg as professor of theoretical physics and worked there for four years. From 1880 to 1883. He was a professor of theoretical physics at the University of Strasbourg, then to 1885. - Professor of Physics at the Technical University of Karlsruhe. Over the next ten years he worked as a Professor of Experimental Physics, University of Tц+bingen and arranged with him Physics Institute. In 1895, Mr.. B. returned to the University of Strasbourg Professor of Physics and Director of the Physics Institute of Strasbourg, where he had performed his most famous investigations.
In 1897. B. invented the oscilloscope - a device in which the alternating voltage moved the beam of electrons inside a vacuum tube with cathode rays. Next, those left by the beam on the surface of the tube can be graphically transformed using a rotating mirror, thus providing a visual image of the changing voltage. Tube Brown formed the basis of television equipment, t. to. kinescope work based on the same principle.
Around this time, B. began research on wireless telegraphy. Italian electrical engineer Guglielmo Marconi just wireless messages transmitted through the air at a distance of 9 miles. B. was puzzled by the difficulties met by Marconi, trying to increase the transmission distance simply by increasing the transmitter power. In the Marconi transmitter used an electric spark machine, generating so-called Hertz waves (periodic oscillations), which are distributed in space. To a certain point increase 'spark gap' really led to an increase in transmission distance. B. found that when the spark gap becomes more of a certain size, resulting waves interfere with each other, which leads to a weakening of the transfer. During the year, he developed a transmitter Brown, which was used sparkless antenna circuit.
. In Brown, the transmitter tuned circuit, which generate energy waves, was a magnetic circuit with the transformer is connected to the antenna, which previously included directly in the chain contour
. Essential feature of the system B. was the inclusion of a capacitor in the circuit containing a spark gap that is now used in radio and television transmitters and radars. Moreover, the difficulties of isolation, so annoying in the transmitter Marconi, practically did not exist in Brownian sparkless Telegraph. At the receiver B. used a direct link circuit capacitors and the antenna by virtue of resonance oscillations of the transmitting station produced the maximum effect in a receiver, . whose oscillation period coincides with the period of oscillation transmitting station, . other words, . when they are configured on the same frequency,
. As a result, it became possible to select the frequency at which echoes the receiving station, so that the signals of other frequencies from other transmitters do not interfere with her work.
B. took out a patent for his invention in 1899. and founded the 'Telegraph Company Professor Brown', through which and to introduce their subsequent invention. Among them was a crystal detector (the predecessor of the transistor), marked a huge step forward compared with coherer, who used the Marconi. In 1901, Mr.. published his article on wireless telegraphy in the form of a booklet entitled 'wireless telegraphy in the water and air' ( "Wireless Telegraphy Through Water and Air"). The following year he demonstrated the first functional transmission and reception of wireless communication designed, which used directional transmitter and directional receiver.
His last important contribution to science he did in 1904. B. able to demonstrate through a narrow-band receiver that both light and electromagnetic waves are equally reflected and absorbed by small bars set at different angles to the incident radiation. This indicated that light represents the electrical signal, and served as further confirmation of the theoretical findings of the 1860-ies. Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell.
B. and Marconi received in 1909. Nobel Prize in Physics "in recognition of their contribution to the establishment of wireless telegraphy '. In his Nobel lecture B. cited his own lecture to them in 1890. 'Sometimes wireless telegraphy is defined as the spark telegraphy, and still can not do without a spark in a particular case. Here, however, she made the most innocuous. It is important. For spark-generating waves, then they also destroy ... That is what we wanted, correct total should be called sparkless Telegraph ... ' 'I am happy to think, - he continued - that we are significantly closer to that goal and as a result of a transmitter made even more effective'.
In 1886. B. married Amelia Buchler, they had two sons and two daughters. Being in communion pleasant and friendly person. B., in the opinion of his colleagues and assistants, was deprived of hubris and arrogance. He loved to paint, make sketches, travel and write stories for children.
In 1914, Mr.. B. went to New York to testify on one patent dispute. Multiple delays case, as well as his own sickness detained in New York until 1917. And since this year the United States entered the First World War, B. not allowed to return to Germany. Ill in the house of his son, he died April 20, 1918, Mr.. in a hospital in Brooklyn.

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