Bridgman (Bridgman), Percy Williams( The American physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1946)
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Biography Bridgman (Bridgman), Percy Williams
April 21, 1882, Mr.. - August 20, 1961
American physicist Percy Williams Bridgman was born in Cambridge (Massachusetts). He was an only child, Raymond Landon Bridgman, a newspaper reporter, publicist, and Mary Anne Mary Bridgman, nee Williams. Shortly after his birth the family moved to r. Newton, where B. grew up, visiting the parish church, playing chess and doing sports. School teacher in Newton advised him to choose their paths of science.
In 1990. B. enrolled at Harvard University, has started his long collaboration with that institution. He chose to study chemistry, mathematics and physics, receiving the bachelor's degree with honors in 1904. The following year he was awarded a master's degree, and in 1908. He became a doctor of sciences with a thesis on the effect of pressure on electrical resistance of mercury. Beginning his career as research assistant in 1908, B. in 1910. becoming a teacher in 1913. - Assistant Professor, in 1919. - Professor, in 1950, Mr.. - A university professor and in 1954. - Honorary Professor, retired.
. The result of his scientific work is enormous - 260 articles and 13 books, not least due to his rejection of all social duties: he was never seen in the faculty meetings and is very rare - the university committee
. Statement: 'I'm not interested in your college, . I want to engage in research ', . he made the rector of the University of Abbott Lawrence Lauellu, . characterizes it as the individualist, . which was reflected also in his reluctance to carry out joint studies or to take more of the required number of graduate students.,
. In 1905, Mr.
. B. invented a method of isolating a pressurized vessel with a gas under high pressure. Principle of design B. consisted in the fact that the insulating gasket, made of rubber or soft metal, was compressed under a pressure greater than the pressure inside the vessel. Sealing cap is automatically compacted with increasing pressure and never gives a leak, regardless of the pressure until the vessel wall can withstand.
. Creating high-hardened alloy steel alloys containing tungsten carbide with cobalt additive (carbol) allowed B
. use their constantly refined by the apparatus for measuring compressibility, density and melting point of hundreds of materials depending on the pressure and temperature. In his works, he found that many of the materials under the influence of high pressure are polymorphic, their crystal structure changes, allowing for more dense packing of atoms in a crystal. His research generated by the pressure of polymorphism revealed two new forms of phosphorus and 'hot ice' - ice that is stable at 180 б¦ Fahrenheit and a pressure of about 20 thousand. atmospheres. In subsequent years, researchers using high pressure, created synthetic diamonds, cubic boron nitride crystals and high-quality quartz crystals. B. found that high blood pressure can affect even the electronic structure of atoms, as illustrated by the reduction of atomic volume element cesium, with 45 thousand. atmospheres. His studies have shown that at high pressures that exist in the bowels of the earth, should take place a radical change in the physical properties and crystalline structure of rocks.
. With the equipment of dual compression, where a powerful compressor operates inside the vessel with high blood pressure, B
. easily obtained in small amounts of pressure of about 100 thousand. atmospheres. From time to time he studied the impact on the substance of pressure, reaching 400 thousand. atmospheres.
In 1946, Mr.. B. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics "for his invention of the instrument, allowing to create ultra-high pressure, and for the discoveries made in connection with the physics of high pressure '. In a speech at the awards ceremony AE. Lind of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Congratulates B. with 'outstanding research work in the field of High Pressure Physics'. He said: 'With the help of your original device in conjunction with a brilliant technique of experimentation you very substantially enriched our knowledge about the properties of matter at high pressures. "
. During the First World War, B., working in New London (Conn.), created a system of acoustic detection for anti-submarine warfare
. During the Second World War he worked on the problem of compressibility of uranium and plutonium, thereby contributing to the establishment of the first atomic bomb.
In 1912, Mr.. B. married Olivia Ware, daughter of Edmund Ware, founder of Atlanta University. They had a son and daughter. Living with a family in Cambridge, . then in his summer house in Randolph (New Hampshire), . Peter, . as it was called from his student years, . devoted much time working in the garden, . mountaineering, . photos, . Chess, . playing handball, . and also liked to read detective stories and playing the piano.,
. At the age of 79 years, 7 years after his resignation, B
. learned that he had cancer and that he had left to live for several months. Rapidly losing the ability to walk and not finding a doctor who would facilitate his departure from life, B. committed suicide on Aug. 20, 1961, Mr.. He left a note which said: 'Not a very decently by society itself make a man do such things. Perhaps this is the last day when I could do it myself. P.U.B. '.
B. was a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Philosophical Society. American Academy of Arts and Sciences. American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Physical Society. He was a foreign member of the Royal Society of London. National Academy of Sciences of Mexico and the Indian Academy of Sciences. Among his numerous awards were Rumford Medal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1917), . Elliott Cresson Medal Franklinovskogo Institute (1932), . Comstock Prize, National Academy of Sciences (1933) and the Scientific Award of the American Research Corporation (1937),
. He had honorary degrees from Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, Harvard University, Princeton University, Yale University, and Stivensovskogo Institute of Technology.