William (Guillaume), Charles( Swiss physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1920)
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Biography William (Guillaume), Charles
February 15, 1861, Mr.. - June 13, 1938
Swiss physicist Charles Edouard Guillaume was born in the Fleurieu and was the son of a watchmaker Edouard Guillaume. Father G. returned to his ancestral home in Switzerland, after several years in London headed hour-long workshop, founded by his father, who fled to England during the French Revolution. The first lessons young G. gave my father, and then he began to attend school in Neuchatel. In the seventeen years Mr.. entered the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, where he studied natural sciences, as well as German and French literature. Later, he said that his interest in science was reinforced by reading the 'laudable speeches' ( "Eloges academiques") permanent secretary of the French Academy of Sciences Francois Arago. In 1882, Mr.. G. defended his dissertation on electrolytic capacitors, and received his doctorate.
After a year of service in the Swiss army as an artillery officer, Mr.. acted as an assistant in the newly established International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sevres, near Paris. In 1902, Mr.. He became deputy director, and in 1905. Director of the Bureau and remained in office until the resignation (1936), after which the title of Director Emeritus.
The first work made by Mr.. at the International Bureau, was linked with a precision mercury thermometer. In this device, a relatively large amount of mercury contained in glass cylinders, which is attached a long cylindrical glass tube of small diameter. As the temperature increases the amount of mercury, which causes a noticeable change in the position of the upper end of the column of mercury. To improve the accuracy of measurements necessary to enter an amendment to change the volume of spray, . associated with the thermal expansion or contraction of the glass, . to changes in cross-sectional area and length of the column of mercury, . and then make the appropriate calibration of the thermometer,
. The speed of change of length and volume depends on the temperature. The results of calculations made by him all the amendments Mr.. outlined in the 'Treatise on Thermometry' ( "Traite de thermometrie") in 1889
After finishing these studies T. seek alloy, which could be used in the local metrological laboratories as affordable, and reliable replacement very expensive platinum-iridium alloy, from which was made a standard meter. A copy of the standard is in each of the countries that participated in the First Conference on Weights and Measures 1889. Measuring rods are used in field conditions at different temperatures and calibrated to the local metrological laboratories stored there standard meter at a fixed temperature. And the poor quality of local standards, and the difference between the temperature in the field and laboratory conditions have led to systematic errors in the measurements.
Exploring alloys, D. noticed that the steel with high nickel content have abnormally low coefficient of thermal expansion. This observation led to the creation of steel containing 36% nickel, 0,4 - manganese, 0,1 - carbon and 63.5% iron and possesses a coefficient of expansion, which is less than one-tenth of the expansion coefficient of iron. His fusion of D. called Invar, since he almost did not change (remained invariant) when heated, and other external influences. G. developed a number of methods (such as annealing, Pulling and rolling), allowing processing Invar with continuous monitoring of its coefficient of thermal expansion. ц+talon meters of Invar widespread. In the field, surveyors and cartographers began to use measuring tapes and wires from Invar to proveshivaniya base triangulation network. Invar has found application in pendulum clocks, which were in those years, the guardians of the standard time.
Continuing research in metallurgy, D. created an alloy containing 36% nickel, 12 - chromium and 52% iron. This alloy, which had much lower thermoelastic coefficient than iron, T. called elinvarom (e - from the elasticity, Invar - from invariance), emphasizing the practical constancy of its modulus of elasticity. Application elinvara allowed to exclude mismatch steel tuning forks and balances in hours due to changes in their elastic properties (stiffness) due to temperature fluctuations.
In 1920, Mr.. G. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics "in recognition of his services to the accurate measurements in physics - the opening of anomalies in nickel steel alloys'. Presenting the winner, A.G. Ekstrand of the Royal Swedish Academy said that GM, 'of course, is the largest metrologists today ... Its discovery is of great importance for high-precision scientific measurement and thus for the development of natural sciences in general '. Furthermore, Ekstrand added, the work of Mr.. the properties of nickel steel contributed to the theoretical understanding of 'the structure of matter in the solid state'.
As an ardent supporter of the international application of the metric system, G. used his extraordinary tact and charm for its further spread.
Despite many years lived in France, Mr.. kept his Swiss citizenship. In 1888. He married п-.п°. Taufflib. They had three children. G. died June 13, 1938, Mr.. in Sevres (France).
G. was awarded honorary degrees from universities of Geneva, Neuchц-tel and Paris. He was president of the French Physical Society, a member of more than a dozen scientific academies and scientific societies, was awarded the Order of the Legion of Honor.