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Josephson (Josephson), Brian D.

( Wales physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1973)

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Biography Josephson (Josephson), Brian D.
genus. January 4, 1940
Wales physicist Brian David Josephson was born in Cardiff in the family of Abraham and Mimi Josephson. After a local high school, he enrolled at Trinity College at Cambridge University, graduating in 1960. with a bachelor. In the same college D. Scientists received a master's degree and Ph.D. (1964). From 1962 to 1969. he junior researcher at Trinity College.
New fame came to the DA, when he was still a student (I960), drew attention to the fact that all the researchers applied the Mossbauer effect (named after Rudolph L. Mossbauer) for measuring the gravitational redshift of gamma-radiation (which can be considered as light, with high energy), overlooked the main source of error in their experiments. General Theory of Relativity of Albert Einstein pointed out that the motion of photons (in particular, the photons of gamma radiation) in the gravitational fields is accompanied by a change in their energy. The experimenters attempted to measure the change in the wavelength of gamma radiation propagating from the bottom up and top down any towers. D. noticed that the difference in temperature between the source and detector of gamma radiation by only 1 б¦ C leads to a shift in wavelength by an amount roughly equal to that which the experimenters attempted to measure the. Opening D. prompted the scientists to repeat their studies under strict temperature control the most critical parts of the measuring instruments.
Around 1962. D. began to study superconductivity - the phenomenon that consists in the fact that cooling substances to temperatures below a certain critical their electrical resistance drops to zero. Superconductivity arises from the ability of paired electrons in a conductor to communicate through the atomic vibrations (phonons), excited in the material. Shortly before Aivar Ivar Giaever, . worked in the company 'General Electric', . found, . that if electrical contact is composed of superconducting material and a normal metal with a very thin layer of insulator, . separating the two conductors, . then its electrical properties can get a lot of information about the properties of the superconductor,
. In 1962. D. theoretically calculated, as will behave in a similar contact between two superconductors. He found that current can flow through the insulator and in the absence of a potential difference between two conductors (dc Josephson effect). It was totally unexpected and not consistent with the classical physical model results. D. also suggested that if the contact to make the potential difference, then it will go through an oscillating current with a frequency that depends only on the applied voltage (Josephson effect). Both effects are very sensitive to the magnetic field in the contact. These phenomena were soon confirmed experimentally, and their properties were in full agreement with the theory. D. Moreover, many experimenters, using a technique Ivar Giaever, and Josephson effects previously observed, but rejected them as 'noise'
. Opening of the Josephson effects had a significant impact on modern physics AC Frequency depends on the applied voltage to the contact and relationship of the electron charge to the Max-Planck constant (the basic physical constants, . determines the behavior of systems, . extent of which the order of atomic or less),
. Josephson effect allowed a sharp increase in the accuracy with which the known value of the ratio (e / h). They helped to create a fundamentally new quantum voltage standard used today in many national bureau of standards. Connecting a closed circuit two Josephson junctions, the experimenters have designed an extremely sensitive magnetic field sensors. Such devices, called the SQUID (from the English. SQUID superconducting quantum interference device), the most sensitive of the currently known magnetic field detectors. They are used to measure the magnetic fields of living organisms, preparation of magnetic cards and the detection of objects hidden beneath the surface. Based on the Josephson effects have been produced and sensitive detectors of very weak changes in voltage Promising prospects bodes well as the use of nodes, . based on a Josephson effects, . as elements of high-speed computer circuits with very low energy consumption.,
. In 1969
. D. became a senior research fellow at Cambridge University. In 1966 1967 he. He has been a visiting professor at the University of Illinois. From 1967 to 1972. D. was Deputy Director for Research at Cambridge. From 1972 to 1974. teacher, and since 1974. - Professor of Physics at Cambridge University.
D. was awarded half the Nobel Prize in Physics 1973. 'for the theoretical predictions of the properties of the current passing through the tunnel barrier, in particular phenomena, now commonly known under the name of Josephson effects'. The other half of the prize was shared by Leo Esaki and Ivar Giaever Aivar. Introducing the winners, Stig Lundqvist of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences noted that the pioneering work of Esaki laid the groundwork for opening Ivar Giaever, which in turn served as the impetus for the theoretical work of D.
In subsequent years, D. continued his study of superconductivity and critical phenomena, . arising in systems near the transition point, . such a critical point of water (which disappears difference between liquid and gas phases), . and similar transitions between superconducting and normal states in those systems, . in which such transitions are possible,
. In the late 60-ies. D. expressed interest in the problems of reason and intellect. In the early 70-ies. he studied transcendental meditation. D. hoping that he would be able to achieve a synthesis of modern physics and mathematics, on the one hand, and the theory of intelligence developed by the spiritual leader Maharishi Mahesh Yogi - the other. D. left his studies in line with the mainstream of physics, to devote himself entirely to transcendental meditation and the theory of mental. Commenting on his decision, he said: 'I will take a very unconventional theoretical approach to the phenomena of intelligence, because convinced that the most fundamental concepts related to it, were discovered in ancient times ... In particular, in their studies, I largely assume from the wording, drawn by me in numerous lectures, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. I hope that the usefulness and accuracy of representations developed by them will be confirmed by computer simulation '.
In 1976. D. married Carol Ann Oliver. They have a daughter. His leisure D. conducting, engaging in mountain tourism, astronomy, ice-skating and photography.
Among other awards D. awarded the prize "For success in science 'of the American Research Corporation (1969) and the Hughes medal of the Royal Society of London (1972). He is a member of the Royal Society of London and a foreign member of the American Institute of Electrical and Electronics. American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

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Josephson (Josephson), Brian D., photo, biography
Josephson (Josephson), Brian D., photo, biography Josephson (Josephson), Brian D.  Wales physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1973, photo, biography
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