KUSH (Kusch), Polycarp( The American physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1955)
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Biography KUSH (Kusch), Polycarp
genus. January 26, 1911
American physicist Polycarp Kusch was born in Blankenburg (Germany), the son of Lutheran missionary Johann Matthias Kush and nee Henriette van der Haas. A year after the birth of her son's family immigrated to the United States and settled in Cleveland (Ohio). K. attended the Cleveland city school. In 1922, Mr.. He became an American citizen, and in 1926. joined a minister at the Cleveland Public Library. In 1931, Mr.. K. has a Bachelor of Science in the Case Institute of Technology (now University of Case-Western Reserve) in Cleveland. After the transition to the University of Illinois to. in 1933. received a master's degree in physics, and in 1936. doctoral thesis on optical molecular spectroscopy.
His many years of teaching to. started another graduate of the University of Illinois as an assistant teacher (1931 ... 1936). In 1936, Mr.. he became an assistant researcher at the University of Minnesota, and in 1937. - Teacher of physics at Columbia University. During the Second World War to. conducted research for the needs of the military industry. In 1941 ... 1942. he as an engineer-researcher involved in the development of microwave electron tubes for radars in the 'Westinghouse Electric', and in 1942 ... 1944. as an employee of the Department of War Studies at Columbia University has focused on building high-frequency generators. In 1944 ... 1946. K. an employee of 'Bell Telephone Laboratories' and participated in the design of electron tubes and microwave generators. After the war, to. became an adjunct professor at Columbia University, and since 1949. - Full professor. In 1969 ... 1970. He was president and dean of faculties, and in 1970 ... 1971. - Vice-President for Administrative Affairs and the rector of the college.
In the early years of his work at Columbia University to. in close cooperation with Isidore A. Rabi resonance method is applied in the study of atomic and molecular properties based on the use of molecular beams. Rabi invented his method of magnetic resonance in 1937: a particle beam passed through a magnetic field and simultaneously bombarded pulses. High resolution and high accuracy achievable using the method of Rabi, you can use it to study the properties of such fine particles, the atomic energy levels and nuclear magnetic moments. The magnetic moment of the electron is one of the properties, often appearing in theoretical calculations of atomic physics. Electron has its own magnetic moment, stemming from the rotation of the electron around its axis, and if the electron associated with an atom, then it has an orbital magnetic moment, m. to. electron is in orbit around the nucleus. In 1925, Mr.. Dutch physicist Semyuel A. Goudsmit and George E. Uhlenbeck put forward the idea that the intrinsic magnetic moment of the electron is equal to the value, known as the Bohr magneton (in honor of Niels Bohr). All measurements of atomic properties, produced until 1947, confirmed the correctness of the postulate Goudsmit - Uhlenbeck. Furthermore, this postulate originates directly from the relativistic quantum mechanical equations, formulated in 1928. Paul п-.п°. Paul Dirac, which describes all the known properties of the electron. But in 1947. Rabi and his colleagues measured the difference between some of the energy levels of hydrogen and compared the results with theoretical predictions. In the calculations used the value of the intrinsic magnetic moment of the electron, postulated by Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck, and the magnitude of the magnetic moment of the proton, independent of the magnetic moment of the electron. When it became clear that the experimental results at variance with theoretical predictions, an American physicist Gregory Breit suggested that the value taken by Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck, could be wrong.
. Using magnetic resonance, K
. and the American physicist Henry Foley studied the magnetic moment of the electron. They were able to measure the ratio of the total domestic and total orbital magnetic moments of atomic beams in different energy states. These full time depends on its own and orbital moments of individual electrons and uniquely determined by the energy state of the atom. Any deviation of the experimentally measured ratio from its theoretically predicted value should reflect the fact that the proper and orbital magnetic moments of electrons are not equal. As a pure atomic state is difficult to. Foley and carried out an experiment with several different combinations of states and with several atoms in the same energy state. The result of all measurements was invariably the same: own magnetic moment of the electron a little more than 0,1%, higher than its orbital magnetic moment. Experimental data to. and Foley were in full agreement with theoretical calculations performed by the time Itiro Tomonaga, Julius C. Schwinger and Richard F. Feynman. They quickly went back to the fundamental theory - quantum electrodynamics.
To. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 1955. 'for the precise definition of the electron magnetic moment'. Together with him the Nobel Prize was awarded to Willis S. Lamb. Their independent studies, . said, . introducing the new winners, . Ivar Waller of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, . led to 'reshape the theory of interaction of electrons and electromagnetic radiation - the so-called quantum electrodynamics'.,
. Recent results by
. and other physicists to measure the orbital and internal magnetic moments of electrons were more accurate and perfectly coordinated with the modern theory. In 1972. K. became professor of physics at the University of Texas (Dallas), in 1980. - Member of the board of the university, and in 1982. he was awarded the title of Honorary Professor
Y K. and his first wife, nee Edith Starr McRoberts, with which they were married in 1935, had three daughters. A year after the death of his first wife, followed in 1959, K. entered into a second marriage with Betty Petstsoni. From this marriage with K. two children. A voracious reader with a wide range of interests, to. also known as a great lover of music.
To. is a member of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, the American Philosophical Society and the Association of Teachers of Physics. He is an honorary doctor of the University-Case Western Reserve, Ohio State University, Illinois, Yeshiva University, Colby College, Gustavus Adolphus College and Inkarneyt-World College