LORENZ Hendrick( Dutch physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1902)
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Biography LORENZ Hendrick
July 18, 1853, Mr.. - February 4, 1928
Dutch physicist Hendrik Antoon Lorentz was born in Arnhem in the family of Gerrit Frederik Lorentz and Gertrude (Van Ginkel) Lorenz. A Father. contained creche. The boy's mother died when he was four years. Five years later his father remarried to Lyuberte Hupkes. L. studied in high school Arnhem and had excellent grades in all subjects.
In 1870, Mr.. he entered the University of Leiden, where he met a professor of astronomy, Frederick Kaiser, whose lectures on theoretical astronomy interested in him. Less than two years, L. has a Bachelor of Science in physics and mathematics. Back in Arnhem, he taught at a local high school while preparing for the exam for his doctorate, which he passed perfectly in 1873,. Two years later, L. successfully defended at the University of Leiden dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Science. The thesis was devoted to the theory of reflection and refraction of light. It h. investigated some consequences of the electromagnetic theory of James Clerk Maxwell on the light waves. The thesis was recognized outstanding work.
L. continued to live in your own home and teach at a local high school until 1878, when he was appointed to the chair of theoretical physics at Leiden University. While the theoretical physics as an independent science has done is only the first steps. Department of Leiden was one of the first in Europe. The new appointment is the best in line with the tastes and inclinations of Leningrad, which had the special gift to formulate a theory and application of sophisticated mathematical tools to solve physical problems.
. Continuing to engage in research of optical phenomena, L
. in 1878. published work, . in which the theoretically derived relation between body density and its refractive index (the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in the body - the value, . characterizes, . how strongly deviates from the initial direction of the light beam passing from the vacuum in the body),
. It so happened that a little earlier the same formula published the Danish physicist Ludwig Lorenz, therefore it is called the formula of Lorentz - Lorentz. However, the work of Hendrik L. of particular interest because it is based on the assumption that the material object contains oscillating electrically charged particles interacting with light waves. She backed up by no means universally accepted then the view that the substance consists of atoms and molecules.
In 1880, Mr.. research interests L. were related mainly to the kinetic theory of gases, which describes the motion of molecules and the establishment of relations between their temperature and average kinetic energy. In 1892, Mr.. L. began to formulate a theory which he himself and the other was later called the theory of electrons. Electricity, asserted L., occurs when the motion of tiny charged particles - positive and negative electrons. Later it was found that all the electrons are negatively charged. L. concluded that variations of these tiny charged particles generate electromagnetic waves, including light and radio waves, predicted by Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz discovered in 1888. In 1890-ies. L. continued study of theory of electrons. He used it to unify and simplify the electromagnetic theory of Maxwell, published a major work on many problems of physics, including the splitting of spectral lines in a magnetic field.
. When the light from the hot gas passes through the slit of the spectroscope, and then divided into component frequencies, or colors are clean, there is a line spectrum - a series of bright lines on a black background, the position of which indicates the corresponding frequency
. Each spectrum is characteristic of a well-defined gas. L. suggested that the frequency of oscillating electrons determine the frequency of light emitted by the gas. In addition, he hypothesized that the magnetic field should affect the motion of electrons and slightly modify the frequency of oscillations, splitting the spectrum into multiple lines. In 1896, Mr.. A colleague. of the University of Leiden Pieter Zeeman put sodium flame between the poles of an electromagnet and discovered that two of the most striking lines in the spectrum of sodium increased. After further careful observation of the flame of various substances Zeeman confirmed the conclusions of the theory of LD, finding that the extended spectral lines in fact represent a group of relatives of the individual components. The splitting of spectral lines in a magnetic field is called the Zeeman effect. Zeeman confirmed the assumption N. the polarization of light emitted
While the Zeeman effect could not be fully explained before in the XX century. quantum theory, proposed by L. explanation based on the oscillation of electrons allowed to understand the simplest features of this effect. At the end of XIX century. many physicists believed (as it turned out, correctly) that the spectra should be the key to unraveling the structure of the atom. Therefore the use of L. theory of electrons to explain the spectral effects can be considered extremely important step towards the elucidation of the structure of matter. In 1897. J. J. Thomson discovered the electron in a freely moving particle that occurs when electrical discharges in vacuum tubes. Properties open particles were the same as that postulated L. electrons oscillating in atoms.
Zeeman and L. were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 1902. 'in recognition of outstanding contributions they have made their own investigation of the influence of magnetism on radiation'. 'The most significant contribution to the further development of the electromagnetic theory of light we are obliged to Professor L., - said at the award ceremony Hjalmar Teel of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. - If Maxwell's theory is free of any atomistic assumptions had been nature, then A. begins with the hypothesis that matter consists of microscopic particles called electrons, which are the bearers of definite charges'.
In the late XIX - early XX century. L. rightly considered a leading theoretical physicist of the world. Portfolio L. encompass not only electricity, magnetism and optics, but the kinetics, thermodynamics, mechanics, statistical physics and hydrodynamics. His efforts had reached the limits of physical theory, possible in the framework of classical physics. Eden L. influenced the development of the modern theory of relativity and quantum theory.
In 1904. L. published the most famous of them derived formulas, called Lorentz transformations. They describe the reduction in the size of a moving body in the direction of motion and change the course of time. Both effects are small, but growing, when the speed approaches the speed of light. This work he undertook in the hope to explain the failures, embrace all attempts to detect the influence of ether - a mysterious hypothetical substance, presumably filling the entire space.
. It was believed that the ether is required as the environment in which distributed electromagnetic waves, such as light, just as air molecules are necessary for the propagation of sound waves
. Despite the many difficulties encountered in the way of those who tried to determine the properties of the omnipresent ether, which stubbornly refused to be monitoring, physics were still convinced that it exists. One consequence of the existence of the ether must necessarily be observed: if the speed of light is measured by moving the device, it must be greater than the motion of the light source and less when moving in the opposite direction. Ether could be viewed as the wind, transporting light and make it spread more rapidly when the observer is moving against the wind, and slower when it moves in the wind.
In the famous experiment conducted in 1887, Mr.. Albert A. Michelson and Edward I. Morley, with the help of high-precision instrument called an interferometer, the light rays were required to undergo a certain distance in the direction of motion of the Earth and then the same distance in the opposite direction. The measurements were compared with measurements made over the beams propagating back and forth perpendicular to the direction of motion of the Earth. If the air has some influence on the motion, while the propagation of light rays along the direction of motion of the Earth and perpendicular to it due to differences in the rates would be different enough so that they could be measured interferometer. To the surprise of supporters of the theory of the ether, no differences were found.
Set of explanations (for example, reference to the fact that the Earth carries away the air and so it is resting on it) were very poor. To solve this problem L. (and independently by the Irish physicist J. F. Fitzgerald) suggested, . that movement through the air leads to a reduction in the size of the interferometer (and, . hence, . any moving body) on the value, . which explains the apparent absence of a measurable difference speed of light rays in the experiment of Michelson - Morley experiment.,
. Transformations L
. had a great influence on the further development of theoretical physics in general and in particular the creation of next year, Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity. Einstein felt for L. esteem. But if L. thought, . that the strain of moving bodies must be called by some molecular forces, . time change - no more than a mathematical trick, . and the constancy of the speed of light for all observers should follow from his theory, . then approached Einstein relativity and the constancy of the speed of light as to the fundamental principles, . not problems,
. Adopting a radically new perspective on space, time and a few fundamental postulates, Einstein came up with the transformation L. and the need to exclude the introduction of ether.
L. sympathetic to innovative ideas and one of the first made in support of Einstein's special theory of relativity and quantum theory of Max Planck. For nearly three decades of the new century L. showed great interest in the development of modern physics, aware that new ideas about time, space, matter and energy would resolve many of the problems it faced in their own research. The high authority L. among colleagues is indicated by the following fact: on request it in 1911. became chairman of the first Solvay Conference in Physics - an international forum of the most famous scientists - and every year until his death, carried out these duties.
In 1912, Mr.. L. retired from the University of Leiden, in order to devote most of their time for research, but once a week, he continued to lecture. After moving to Harlem, A. assumed the duties of guardian of physical collections of the Museum of Prints Taylor. This gave him the opportunity to work in the laboratory. In 1919, Mr.. L. participated in one of the world's greatest projects, flood prevention and control. He headed the committee to monitor the movements of sea water during and after drying Zyuyderzee (Bay of the North Sea). After the First World War L. actively contributed to the reconstruction of scientific cooperation efforts aimed to restore the membership of the citizens of Central Europe in the international scientific organizations. In 1923, Mr.. He was elected to the International Commission on Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations. The commission consisted of seven scientists from the world famous. Two years later, L. became its chairman. L. remained mentally active until his death, February 4, 1928, Mr.. in Harlem.
In 1881, Mr.. L. married Allette Katherine Kaiser, professor of astronomy niece Kaiser. U spouses Lorenz had four children, one of whom died in infancy. L. was extremely charming and humble man. These qualities, as well as his amazing ability for languages enabled him to successfully lead the international organizations and conferences.
In addition to the Nobel Prize L. was awarded the Copley medal, and Rumford Royal Society of London. He was an honorary doctor of Paris and Cambridge Universities, a member of the Royal London and Germany Physical Society. In 1912, Mr.. L. became secretary of the Netherlands Scientific Society.
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