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MARCONI (Marconi), Guglielmo

( Italian electrical engineer and inventor of the Nobel Prize in Physics, 1909)

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Biography MARCONI (Marconi), Guglielmo
April 25, 1874, Mr.. - July 20, 1937
Italian electrical engineer and inventor Guglielmo Marconi was born in Bologna. He was the second son of Giuseppe Marconi, the landowner of the second marriage with nee Annie Jameson Irish. Before entering into a technical school in Leghorn M. studied with a tutor in Bologna and Florence. The age of 20 M. carried away by physics, the special interest he has evoked research on the theory of electricity James Clerk Maxwell, Heinrich Hertz, Edouard Branly, Oliver Lodge and Augusto Riga.
In 1894, Mr.. M. read about the experience, demonstrated by in 1888: electric spark, slipped through the gap between two metal balls, gave rise to periodic oscillations, or pulses (waves Hertz). M. immediately got the idea to use these waves to transmit signals through the air without wires. Following 40 years of his life he devoted to wireless telegraphy, all seeking greater efficiency and transmission distance.
Receiving advice from Riga, M. advantage of the Hertz vibrator and coherer Branly (detector of Hertzian waves, turns vibrations into electrical current) and gave the signal, including electric bell on the other side lawn of his father's estate. By mid-1895. M. created a more sensitive and reliable coherer: included a telegraph key in the chain of transmitters, ground vibrator and attached one of its ends to a metal plate, located high above the ground. As a result of these improvements he was able to transmit a signal to a distance of 1.5 miles. Since the Italian government showed no interest in his invention, M. went to England hoping to find there the means to continue research and deployment of commercial use of his invention. In 1896, Mr.. cousin M. Henry James Davis helped him make the first patent application for the invention of wireless telegraphy.
Stay M. England began with trouble: suspicious customs officers smashed his wireless device. Having restored his child, F. managed to bring it to the attention of British businessmen and government officials. In September 1896, perfecting his system, he gave the signal to a distance of almost 2 miles. When the Italian government called him to three years of military service, M. managed to secure a formal military duty, the number of students Naval Academy at the Italian Embassy in London. In May 1897. it transmits signals through the Bristol Bay for a distance 9 miles. In July of that year, M. and a small group of investors founded the 'Company of wireless telegraph and signal', whose task included the installation of floating units and ground-based lighthouses along the coast of England.
In the course of the work M. found that the transmission distance is proportional to the number and length of your antenna. To send a signal to a distance of 28 miles across the Strait of English Channel, M. used a group of antennas, each of which was 150 feet tall. In 1900, based on the discovery of Ferdinand Braun, M. included in its transmitter coil and capacitor settings, which increased the signal energy. Capacitor enhances the effect of vibrations caused by a spark arrester, and the coil yielded matches the period of oscillation in the antenna with a period of increased variability. These two chains can now be configured so that the fluctuations have occurred in the concert and thus there would be no vibration due to the interference. This minimizes the attenuation of the signal.
At the same time M. and improved signal reception, enabling the receiver coil configuration, resulting from the received signal coherer transmitted only fluctuations that are configured to fluctuations in the transmitter. This eliminated the reception of signals transmitted by all other antennas. Patent N7777, issued in April 1900, in essence, fixes for M. monopoly on the use of customized at each other transmitters and receivers. He founded the company was renamed 'wireless telegraphy Marconi Company'.
By the end of 1900. M. can increase the range of signal transmission up to 150 miles. In January 1901. he established wireless contact between some points on the coast of England, spaced at a distance of 186 miles. At the end of that year, while in Saint John on the island of Newfoundland, M. received signal is transmitted across the Atlantic Ocean from Cornwall (UK). The signal covered a distance of 2100 miles. In 1902, Mr.. M. gave the first wireless signal across the Atlantic from west to east. In 1905, Mr.. He took out a patent directed to the transmission of signals. In 1907, Mr.. M. opened the first transatlantic wireless service, and in 1912. received a patent for an improved adjustable spark system in time for the generation of transmitted waves.
M. and Brown were together awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 1909. 'in recognition of their achievements in the development of wireless telegraphy'. Noting the theoretical study of Michael Faraday, Heinrich Hertz and other predecessors M., Hans Hildebrandt from the Royal Swedish Academy noted that 'the main thing (other than the indomitable energy with which M. went to he himself the target) was achieved when M. through natural abilities have translated the entire system in a compact, suitable for practical use by design '.
During the First World War, M. perform a series of military missions, and eventually became commander of the Italian Navy. He supervised the program and the Telegraph for the needs of the Italian Armed Forces. In 1919, Mr.. he was appointed plenipotentiary of Italy at the Paris Peace Conference. On behalf of the Italian M. signed treaties with Austria and Bulgaria.
Turn your steam yacht 'Elettra' in the house, laboratory and office, M. in 1921. began intensive research shortwave telegraphy. By 1927, Mr.. Company M. launched an international network of commercial short-wave telegraph. In 1931, Mr.. M. investigated the transmission of microwaves and the following year established the first microwave radiotelephone link. In 1934, Mr.. it demonstrates the possibility of using microwave telegraphy for the needs of navigation in the open sea.
In 1905, Mr.. M. married a native of Ireland Beatrice O'Brien. They had three children. Three years after the divorce, which followed in 1924, M. entered into a second marriage with the Countess Betstsi-Scali, from which he had a daughter. M. died on July 20 1937. Rome.
Among other awards M. was awarded the medal Franklinovskogo Franklin Institute and the Albert medal of the Royal Society of Arts in London. In Italy he received the hereditary title of Marquis, was a senator and was awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Italy.


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MARCONI (Marconi), Guglielmo, photo, biography
MARCONI (Marconi), Guglielmo, photo, biography MARCONI (Marconi), Guglielmo  Italian electrical engineer and inventor of the Nobel Prize in Physics, 1909, photo, biography
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