Mott (Mott), Neville( English physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1977)
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Biography Mott (Mott), Neville
genus. September 30, 1905
English physicist Nevill Francis Mott was born in Leeds and was the son of Lillian Mary (nee Reynolds) and Charles Francis Mott Mott, head of public education in Liverpool. His parents met while studying the physics at J. J. Thomson at the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University. After Clifton College in Bristol, M. enrolled in the College of St.. John in Cambridge, where he studied mathematics and theoretical physics, receiving a bachelor's degree in 1927
M. studied at the undergraduate, where theoretical physics has achieved considerable success through the development of Werner Heisenberg and independently by Erwin Schrodinger principles of quantum mechanics. Having plunged headlong into the post-graduate studies, M. briefly worked at Cambridge under the direction of P. Fowler, one of the founders of modern astrophysics, and then in Copenhagen, led by Niels Bohr in GцTttingen under Max Born. Returning to England in 1929, the year he lectured at Manchester University, where he worked with U.L. Bragg, and then from 1930 to 1933. in Gonvill-end-Keyes College, Cambridge. Here he is in 1930. received a master's degree. Working with Ernest Rutherford M. involved the application of quantum mechanics to the analysis of scattering of particles in collisions. He was able to theoretically deduce the famous empirical formula for the Rutherford scattering of alpha particles by atomic nuclei, . and his calculations led to an unexpected discovery, . that are identical to helium nuclei of alpha particles at certain scattering angles, the calculated response value has doubled, . and this effect was later confirmed experimentally.,
. In 1933
. the age of 28 M. became professor of theoretical physics at Bristol University. In the same year he teamed up with British physicist G. Messeem wrote a book 'Theory of Atomic Collisions' ( "The Theory of Atomic Collisions"). Then M. began exploring various phenomena in solid state physics, particularly the structural properties of metals. He developed a theory of transition metal (chemical elements, . including most common metals), . specifying in which two groups of electrons, . one of which is mainly responsible for the electrical conductivity, . the other - for the magnetic properties and the scattering,
. His other studies have been devoted to problems of hardening of metal alloys, rectification of electrical current (AC-DC conversion), as well as the structure of ionic crystals and photographic processes.
By 30 th years. quantum mechanics allowed the researchers to explain the difference between metallic and nonmetallic substances using the band theory According to this theory, the energy of electrons is restricted zones, or levels, characteristic of the substance. That is the difference nature of these levels determines the difference between metals and nonmetals. In metals the electrons can occupy energy states in which they are only weakly associated with nuclei, so that they are able to flow in the form of electric current to stimulate the conductivity, when to make the potential difference. Participating in 1937. in a scientific conference at Bristol University, M. interested in one fact is clearly contrary to the band theory. Theoretically, nickel oxide was supposed to be a metallic conductor, whereas in fact it is an insulator. Entering in the band theory account of the interaction between electrons, M. in 1949. clarify the properties of nickel oxide and determined why some substances pass from insulators to conductors when changing the electron density. These changes, now called the Mott transition, began to play an important role in the establishment of semiconductors.
During the Second World War, M. engaged in work on the study of the theory of operations, the mathematical theory of decision making with regard to strategic planning, and participated in the computation of the Germanic-range missiles' V-2 ". After the war he returned to Bristol, where in 1948. became director of a university physics lab, in 1954. replaced U.L. Bragg at the head of the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge.
In the early 60-ies. M. began to study the electrical properties of amorphous (noncrystalline) materials (eg, glass), the location of molecules which are not ordered and not subject to any laws. He became interested in this area in 1958, when read with article by Philip Y. Anderson, on amorphous semiconductors. The semiconductor is a substance that behaves as an insulator at low and as a conductor at high temperatures.
M. Anderson offered a temporary job visiting professor at Cambridge, and from 1967 to 1975. together they have studied the electrical conductivity of semiconductors. Anderson previously shown that under certain conditions, electrons do not have freedom of diffusion in disordered structures of solids - an effect known as Anderson localization of electrons.
. Initially, Anderson's work did not attract the attention of one of the scientists, with the exception of Moscow, who, developing her ideas, was able to explain some properties of electrons in amorphous materials
. He proposed the concept of border mobility describes the critical level of energy that separates the mobile electrons from the occupied. He also explained the electrical conductivity, . caused by the presence of a relatively small number of foreign atoms, . and minimum conductivity, . where in the disordered material or does not leak electric current, . or no current can flow, . exceeding the specified value,
. This work led to the use of semiconductors in solar batteries, photocopiers and many other devices.
Freed in 1971. on administrative duties after his retirement in Cambridge, MA, according to succeed him as director of the Cavendish Laboratory Brian Pippard, 'as unchained dog violently attacked the work with amorphous materials'.
. In 1977
. M. got together with Anderson and John X. Van Vleck Nobel Prize in Physics "for fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems'. 'Theory of the Mott transition and the Mott transition, Anderson now plays an important role in understanding the properties of certain materials and to create new, - said Per-Olof Levdin, a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, at the presentation of the winners. - Anderson and M. demonstrated that properly controlled disorder may be technically just as important as the most perfect order '.
In addition to direct research M. written several articles on the teaching of science, and also served on several committees dealing with the reform of education. In 1969 ... 1977. He headed the board of directors 'End Taylor Francis', where he publishes scientific books, and even earlier, in 1959 ... 1966., headed Gonvill-end-Keyes College in Cambridge.
In 1930. M. married Ruth Eleanor Horder, they have two daughters. At leisure M. interested in the history of religion, photography, collecting colored glass and Byzantine coins.
The award-winning, F. is also the holder of honorary degrees from Oxford, London and Paris universities and a number of institutions. In 1977. French government awarded him the Order of Merit. In 1962. He received a knighthood.