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RILEY (Ryle), Martin

( English Radioastron Nobel Prize in Physics, 1974)

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Biography RILEY (Ryle), Martin
September 27, 1918, Mr.. - October 16, 1984
English RadioAstron Martin Ryle was born in Oxford and was the second of five children in a family physician and professor of social medicine at Oxford University, John Riley and Miriam (nee Scully), Martin Ryle. Studied at Bredfill College and at Oxford, where in 1939. graduated with honors from the School of Natural Sciences. From 1939 to 1945. participated in the work on the creation and improvement of a portable radar for military purposes and radio in the Research Center of telecommunications in Malvern, where she first met with Antony Hewish. In 1945, Mr.. R. received a scholarship that enabled him to go to the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University and do research under the guidance of John A. Ratcliffe and U.L. Bragg. The theme of the study was the emission of radio waves by the Sun - a phenomenon accidentally open during the Second World War, the operator of radar stations, the equipment, which had R., consisted of two small antennas.
After the war, R. remained in Cambridge, working at the Cavendish Laboratory and Mallardovskoy Radio Astronomy Observatory. In 1948, Mr.. he became a lecturer in physics at Trinitikolledzhe, in 1949. - A member of the staff of the college, in 1957,. second professor of physics, and in 1959. first professor of astronomy at Cambridge.
P. worked to improve the resolution of radio telescopes sprosobnosti higher the resolution, the easier it is to allocate the wave front of a certain direction and neglect the wave fronts coming from the neighboring areas. The resolving power of any telescope depends on the aperture, or diameter of the antenna, which is large compared with the wavelength of the collected antenna radiation. For optical telescopes easily achievable aperture ratio to the wavelength of a few million to one, as the wavelength of light is less than one millionth of a meter. The lengths of radio waves correspond to the range of about 1 cm and above. In order to have an aperture of 1 million. cm, bowl radio (parabolic reflector) would have to have a diameter of 10 km.
Are two antennas at a distance of many wavelengths from each other, P. connecting them to a receiver. Using this post interferometer, he found that the emission of radio waves from the sun spots are very small areas. Using the phase shift (combining the signals from each antenna alternately in phase and in antiphase), P. able to distinguish the radio waves emitted by a spot on the radio waves emitted by the rest of the Sun. Applying the same method to search for stars and galaxies, he penetrated into outer space to a distance of 6 billion. light-years, that three times the range of 200-inch optical reflecting telescope Mount Palomar Observatory. By 1948, Mr.. he was able to determine the location of several so-called radiozvezd (celestial objects that emit electromagnetic radiation) with sufficient accuracy to ensure that they can be seen through optical telescopes. The use of radio waves in astronomy meant, . that first became available to monitor new areas of space, . quite different from those observed with optical telescopes, . example of, . containing high-energy particles or diffuse ionized gas.,
. In 1952, Mr.
. R. and his colleagues decided to create astronomical tools to not only observe the weaker sources, but also to study their internal structure. R. found that it is theoretically possible to combine signals from two antennas (one of which is mobile), the distance between them and the orientation is systematically changed from measurement to measurement. Necessary calculations can be performed on available in the mid 50-ies. computers. In 1957. he built with his dvuhantennogo telescope surveyed a large portion of the sky, opening the 5000 radio. However, due to the limited computational power of computers telescope P. possessed a high resolution only in one dimension.
In 1963, using much increased computational power of computers, P. built a telescope with three controlled 60-foot parabolic reflector antennas, two of which were fixed at a distance of 0.5 miles of each other, and the third is mounted on a movable platform length 2500 feet. Given the Earth's rotation during the 24-hour observation period, this method allowed R., combining the signals of the three antennas, to achieve resolution, the equivalent resolution of a radio telescope with an aperture of 1 mile. With the help of his telescope, he first demonstrated the possibility of the method of aperture synthesis, . allowing to achieve high resolution in two dimensions, . providing a large effective area of antennas at low cost and does not require complex engineering structures,
. It is through trehantennogo telescope was first discovered details of the structure of radio galaxies.
A radio telescope with an even greater equivalent aperture (diameter 3.1 miles) was built by P. in 1971. New telescope consisted of eight antennas, each 42 feet in diameter (four of which were mounted on mobile platforms), and allowed to explore high fine structure of distant radio sources. Permission is achieved with the help of this telescope, it is an arc of 0.6 inches. Past R. extensive studies of celestial radio sources, . most of which are too far and too weak to, . that they can be detected by optical telescopes, . showed, . that some of the most intense radio sources are quasars (quasi-stellar objects) deleted starlike objects, . emit many times more energy, . than the entire galaxy.,
. Modern radio telescopes, far surpassing in size constructed P
. telescopes that use the accuracy of atomic clocks can receive signals at the antenna, separated for thousands of miles apart, and process the received signals on a single computer. The equivalent aperture of the telescope is comparable to the diameter of Earth.
In 1974. R. and Antony Hewish were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics "for pioneering research in Radio astrophysics'. Prize P. was awarded 'for observation and invention, especially for the method of synthesis apeturnogo'.
'The contribution of P. Hewish and is an important step in developing our knowledge of the universe, said at the presentation of the winners Hans Wilhelmsson, a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Through their labors Astrophysics enriched with new areas of research. Giant laboratory of the universe opens its rich possibilities for future research '.
Designed P. telescopes were built in the Netherlands, and New Mexico. It is expected that interferometry with a very large database (up to several thousand kilometers) would allow the arc length of 0,001 inches.
As the conducted P. statistical analysis of radio. The universe is not infinite, and once was much warmer than now. Its findings reinforce the theory of 'Big Bang' in cosmology, and not consistent with the theory of steady state.
In 1976. R. actively involved in research of renewable energy, especially wind and sea wave. His work showed that in the UK wind energy (with large seasonal fluctuations in demand for energy) could be a source, real alternative to nuclear energy.
In 1947, Mr.. R. married to a nurse and a physiotherapist Ella Rowena Palmer. The couple, their two daughters and son often went to the leisure sailing on catamarans and trimarans design head of household. R. died of cancer at his home in Cambridge on Oct. 16, 1984
In 1966, Mr.. R. received knighthood. He is an honorary doctor Strechklayda universities, Oxford and Torun (Poland). From 1972 to 1982. held the post of Astronomer Royal, by tradition continues for the director of the Royal Greenwich Observatory. R. was a member of the Academy of Sciences, the Danish Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the Royal Society of London. In addition to the Nobel Prize, he was awarded numerous awards, t.ch. Medals Hughes (1954) and Royal Medals (1973). Royal Society of London, the gold medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1964) and Henry Draper medal of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (1963).


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