RICHARDSON Owen( English physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1928)
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Biography RICHARDSON Owen
April 26, 1879, Mr.. - 15 February 1959
. English physicist Owen Uillans Richardson was born in Dewsbury (Yorkshire) and was the only son (only child was three), the seller of manufactured goods, Joshua Henry Richardson, and Mary Charlotte (nee Uillans) Richardson
. After primary school in Askerne (near Doncaster) a boy aged 12 years received a scholarship, which gave the right to learn in high school Betli which he graduated with awards for achievements. In 1897. R., received a full scholarship, enrolled at Trinity College at Cambridge University, where he studied at the Cavendish Laboratory under the direction Dzh.Dzh. Thomson, along with other students, among whom were Ernest Rutherford, CH.T.R. Wilson, GA. Wilson and Paul Langevin. Conferred an honorary award for achievements in physics, chemistry and botany, P. in 1900. received a bachelor's degree from Cambridge University and remained there for graduate school in physics and chemistry, and from 1902. was adopted by the staff of Trinity College. Two years later he received an honorary fellowship by James Clerk Maxwell and his doctorate at University College in London.
In 1899. Thomson showed that the current from the coal filament in a vacuum tube is carried by negatively charged particles (electrons). R. attempted to theoretically and experimentally describe how the metal filament emit streams of charged particles. In 1901, Mr.. he, . relying on their own research incandescent platinum filaments, . conjectured, . that the electrons inside the hot wire, . reaching the surface, . may leave it, . if their kinetic energy is large enough, . to overcome the forces, . retaining them in the material,
. In other words, the electron gas can evaporate from the hot surface. R. formulated an empirical law which connects the rate of emission of electrons from the chemical composition of fiber and its surface temperature. Experiments carried out in the next 12 years, including in 1913, from shortly before received a plastic form of tungsten, fully confirmed the law of Richardson. This law states that the rate of electron emission increases rapidly with increasing surface temperature. In 1906, Mr.. R. became professor of physics at Princeton University, where among his students were Robert T. Goddard, Charles T. Arthur Compton and X. Compton ..
Two sisters R. married his colleague, mathematician Oswald Veblen and his own assistant, Clinton J. Davisson.
At Princeton P. showed that the properties of electrons emitted from metal surfaces, subject to the same statistical regularities as the atomic and molecular gases. His other studies include such phenomena, . as the emission of electrons illuminated surface of the substance (the photoelectric effect), . interaction of X-rays with matter, . emission of light material, . gyromagnetic effect and thermodynamics - a branch of physics, . engaged in studying the behavior of systems, . which consist of a huge number of particles,
. In 1909, Mr.. R. suggested to him a new term thermionics (the study of thermionic emission processes) to describe the effect of emission of electric charges incandescent bodies.
In 1913, shortly before obtaining U.S. citizenship, R. was elected a member of the Royal Society of London, and he was offered the Department of Physics at King's College, University of London. Adopting the proposal, he returned in 1914. in London, where his studies were interrupted as soon as the outbreak of the First World War. Although during the war, P. much time was spent in the creation of advanced electron tubes for use in military vehicles telecommunications, he still managed to find time for basic research. To check the accuracy of the proposed by Niels Bohr in 1913. model of the atom P. conducted a thorough spectroscopic study of radiation emitted by excited atoms (measured with a spectrometer the intensity of radiation emitted at different wavelengths). He performed as a pilot test produced by Albert Einstein, theoretical analysis of electron emission metal surface illuminated by ultraviolet radiation. At the end of the war R. devoted himself entirely to research, . and teaching, . which had to leave in 1924, . after the appointment of a professor of research department of the London Royal Society and head of research in physics at King's College.,
. In 1928, Mr.
. R. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics "for his work on termionnym research, and especially for his discovery of the law bearing his name '. In his Nobel lecture P. described the progress of their research and summarized the discoveries made.
In the 20 th and 30-ies. R. published a series of works on the relationship between physics and chemistry for example, studying the structure of molecules. He is actively interested in the applications and experimental verification of predictions, . related to the structure of molecules, . made on the basis of quantum mechanics, . - A new branch of physics, . engaged in describing the behavior of systems in atomic and subatomic scales.,
. In 1939, Mr.
. R. was ennobled. After the Second World War he was engaged in the development of radar systems, sonar, electronic testing devices, magnetrons and klystrons.
In 1906, Mr.. R. married Lilian Maud Wilson, sister of one of his classmates at the university, GA. Wilson. In the couple had two sons and one daughter. Following the resignation of King's College in 1944. He moved to Chendos Lodge - a country house not far from Alton (Hampshire), which enthusiastically led economy to a nearby farm. His first wife died in 1945, and three years later he married Henriette Rupp - physics, a recognized expert in the field of luminescence of solids. Being retired, he continued his studies of the structure of molecules.
A great lover of nature and long walks in the fresh air, P. was known as an exceptionally nice man, generous to help colleagues and students. He died at his home on Feb. 15, 1959
In 1920, Mr.. R. was awarded the Hughes Medal of the Royal Society of London. He was an honorary doctorate by the University of St.. Andrew, Leeds and London, was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the Academies of Sciences in Norway, Sweden, Germany and India.