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Rubbia (Rubbia), Carlo

( Italian physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1984)

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Biography Rubbia (Rubbia), Carlo
genus. March 31, 1934
. Italian physicist Carlo Rubbia was born in the small town of the province of Gorizia, . located near the Italian-Yugoslav border, . and was the eldest son of an electrical engineer Silvio Rubbia and elementary school teacher Beatrice (nee An increase) Rubbia,
. Ability to science and technology, the boy appeared early, he spent much time studying the electrical equipment communications, abandoned during the Second World War.
. By the end of the war, the Yugoslav army occupied most of the province of Gorizia, and the family Rubbia was evacuated, first to Venice, then in Udine, and finally settled in Pisa
. After graduating from high school P. intended to study physics at the privileged school, part of the University of Pisa, but failed the entrance exams because of gaps in education, caused by the war. Forced to leave the dream of physics, P. entered the Faculty of Engineering, University of Milan. A few months later he receives a notice that may return to Pisa and to act on the formed at the last minute job. Subsequently P. remarked upon this to be a physicist by accident. He continued his studies in Pisa and in 1958. wrote his doctoral thesis on experimental investigation of cosmic rays and the development of devices for the detection of elementary particles produced in accelerators in the collisions of other particles accelerated to high energies.
. To gain experience, particularly in the field of accelerators, P
. conducts 1958/59 school, Mr.. at Columbia University, where he worked with Steven Weinberg and other leading scientists in the field of particle physics, high energy. Upon his return to Italy in 1960. it works for some time in the University of Rome, and then moved to CERN (European Center for Nuclear Research) - a consortium of thirteen European countries, located in Switzerland, near Geneva. Shortly before, CERN built the world's most powerful particle accelerator - a proton synchrotron with which the researchers hoped to get elementary particles predicted theoretically but not yet confirmed experimentally.
. Physicists know four fundamental interactions, . existing in nature: gravity (attraction between the masses), . electromagnetic (interaction between electrically charged or magnetic bodies), . 'strong' (interaction, . not giving to disintegrate the nucleus, . compensating the repulsion of carrying an electrical charge of protons and restraint without charge neutrons) and 'weak' (interaction, . associated with the radioactive decay of some unstable nuclei, . in particular with the emission of beta particles, . or electrons),
. It was believed that the fundamental interaction is implemented through the exchange of particles, or quanta of force fields, which constitute, as was the very first days of quantum theory, discrete portions, which is composed of energy. The first such carrier particle interaction, which was discovered, turned out to be a photon - a quantum of electromagnetic radiation, such as light. The development of modern quantum mechanics, which recognizes the duality of wave - particle physicists led to the inescapable conclusion that light, the wave nature of which has been recognized for nearly two centuries, behaves like a stream of discrete particles. The theory of relativity, Albert Einstein introduced the equivalence of mass and energy, giving a theoretical and practical tool for the analysis of interactions involving particle mass and deprived masses of radiation.
. Thus, when the electromagnetic interaction of charged particles such as electrons and protons, an exchange of massless photons
. In 1935. Japanese physicist Hideki Yukawa theoretically predicted that the interaction inside the nucleus may be fields, the quantum of which has mass, and estimate the probability of the value of this mass. Predicted Yukawa particle was found in 1947. English physicist Cecil F. Powell in high-energy collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei. Particle is called pi-meson, or pion, its mass is about 200 times the mass of an electron is a carrier of Pion strong interaction. Later, the peony was obtained under laboratory conditions on powerful accelerators. It opened a lot of different mesons and other subatomic particles. Active work in this area continues to this day. Some offer a theory of physics that allow restore some semblance of rational order in the wild jumble of particles, while others are trying to build ever more powerful accelerators, in order to make the observed increasing numbers of particles.
. The existence of four fundamental interactions did not like the physicists, and they have long tried to create a theory that would unite all the interactions
. In 1960, Mr.. American physicist Sheldon L. Glashow proposed a unified theory of electromagnetic and weak interaction (the interaction of the joint is called the electroweak), . which demanded, . however, . the existence of three is not observed before the particles W + - with a positive electric charge, . W-- with a negative electrical charge and Z0 - with zero charge,
. All three particles fall into one class of particles called bosons (and after the Indian physicist Bose Shatendranata). Photon, pion and nucleus with an even number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) are also bosons. Stephen Vanberg and Abdus Salam independently predicted that the bosons of the Glashow be short-lived and should have a weight of approximately ten times greater than the mass of any of the known elementary particles. Due to the great expectations of the masses for the birth of such particles requires extremely high energies.
In 1969. R. with the Alfred Mann and David Klein decided to search for W-and Z-particles in the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) near Chicago. Two years later, they suspended their work to announce the receipt of evidence of the existence of neutral currents - the flow of uncharged particles, expected as a result of exchange Z0-particles. The report of R., if it is confirmed, would support the theory of Glashow - Weinberg - Salam. However, after researchers at CERN, and seek the elusive currents, announced in 1973. that they managed to get nearly complete data, a group of Fermilab hastily published an article that acknowledged that it failed to detect neutral currents. A year later the group again changed its opinion and issued exhaustively detailed article about the existence of neutral currents. Although the correctness of the conclusions of the last article, no one raised doubts, the episode with the refusal of the opening of the neutral currents few 'raised questions' reputation R.
With new data, indirectly confirming the existence of W-and Z-particles, P. again taken for their quest. However, none existed when the accelerator is not allowed to reach the energies needed for the birth of such massive particles. In 1976. R., . Klein and Peter McIntyre made a radical proposal for the alteration in existence in the CERN accelerator in a super-powerful proton synchrotron (SPS), . to disperse the particles to high energies with a view to getting the beams of protons and antiprotons, . circulating in the same annular tunnel in opposite directions and colliding after acceleration to desired energies on a collision course,
. P.A.M. Dirac predicted in 1928. the existence of antimatter in the form of antielectron - twin particles negatively charged electron, but with a positive charge. The collision of matter and antimatter led to the annihilation of both the masses with the release of energy. Dirac's theory was confirmed in 1932 when Charles D. Anderson opened antielectron (now called a positron).
Proposal Rubbia - Klein - McIntyre required solving many difficult problems and was greeted with a fair skepticism. Nevertheless, R., famously inexhaustible optimism and 'knockouts' abilities, managed to convince CERN to take in 1979. ATP project built at an estimated cost of 100 million. dollars.
One of the most important items on the implementation of the plans was to create a complex detector for detecting particles produced in collisions, and determine their characteristics, such as energy and direction of movement. Working with a group of more than 100 people, P. and his colleagues built a 1200-ton detector chamber, which allows for identification and to determine the properties of some ten wanted particles, which experimenters hope to find (one for each billion. collisions). Smaller - 200-ton - the detector was built the second group for other experiments and confirm the results obtained by the first detector.
. The problem of obtaining sufficient number of antiprotons (anti-matter is extremely rare) was solved by Simon van der Merom
. His proposed method was, . that antiprotons, . born in the bombardment of a solid copper target short series of pulses of very fast moving protons from the proton synchrotron (PS), . set aside and collected in a special storage ring,
. Complex system of electrodes was focused antiprotons, collecting them in the 'pack' pulses. Then the antiprotons from the storage ring again injected in the FS, getting pre-acceleration, and acted in the PCA, together with the 'bunches' of protons, pre-accelerated similarly. Then the particle and antiparticle finally accelerated to an energy of 300 billion. electron volts. Since the particles and antiparticles have opposite charges, . they were treated evacuated to high vacuum ring diameter of about 4 miles in opposite directions in the form of three 'clusters' of particles of each class and face in the six well-defined points, . two of which are located detectors.,
. The experiments began in 1982, and within a month managed to find five W-particles
. To avoid premature statements on the opening P. waited until the end of 1983. and published a report his group to open W + and W - particles only after a careful analysis of experimental data, and a few months, reported the discovery Z0-particles.
In 1984. R. and van der Meer were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics "for a decisive contribution to a large project, which led to the discovery of field quanta W-and Z-particles, carriers of the weak interaction '. When presenting the winners, GцTsta Ekspong, a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, said:
. 'When at CERN were open W-and Z-particles come true an old dream of a better understanding of the weak interaction, which is weak precisely because the W-and Z-particles are so heavy'
. In closing his speech Ekspong suggested that the 'opening of W-and Z-particles will enter the history of physics as the discovery of radio waves and photons of light - carriers of electromagnetism'.
Shortly before the announcement of this award P. his group reported the opening of t-quark, elementary particle, which is considered a fundamental component of other particles such as protons and neutrons. R. also made a proposal for addition of a new and far more powerful proton accelerator to a large electron-positron collider at CERN.
Since 1970, Mr.. R. holds half a year, engaged in teaching, at Harvard University, where in 1986. he became professor of physics and the other half - as a senior physicist at CERN. Energetic, unaware of rest, easy on the rise, P. is recognized not only as a skilled experimentalist, but also as a flexible and dynamic project manager.
In 1957. R. married high school physics teacher Marise Rome. Couple Rubbia, whose son and daughter, lives in Geneva and has a house near Boston (Massachusetts).
In 1985, Mr.. R. was awarded the Grand Cross of the Italian and premium George Ledley, Harvard University. He is a member of the European Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and is a foreign member of the Royal Society of London. He - an honorary doctor of many universities in t. h. University of Geneva, Genoa, Northwestern, Carnegie - Mellon University, Udine and La Plata.


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