Thomson (Thomson), John P.( English physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1937)
Comments for Thomson (Thomson), John P.
Biography Thomson (Thomson), John P.
May 3, 1892, Mr.. - September 10, 1975
English physicist George Paget Thomson was born in Cambridge. He was the only son and eldest of two children J. J. Thomson, professor of experimental physics at Cambridge University and director of the Cavendish Laboratory, and Rosa Elizabeth (nцLe Paget), Thomson, daughter of George Paget, regius professor of medicine at Cambridge. Before the marriage Rose Paget was one of the students J. Thomson at the Cavendish Laboratory.
Ji-Pi, as they called his friends and colleagues, received schooling in the Persian School in Cambridge, where he studied brilliantly. Doing at Trinity College in 1910, he was already the next year proved to be seniors willows 1914. took first prize for mathematics and science. After graduating in the same year the university with a bachelor's degree, he became a Research Fellow and professor of mathematics at Corpus Christi College Cambridge. In this capacity he remained until 1922. with a break during the First World War.
During the war, the T. from 1914 to 1915. served as a lieutenant in France, then returned to England, where for four years worked on the problems of stability and flying qualities of aircraft. At this time he learned to fly and wrote his first textbook 'Applied Aerodynamics' ( 'Applied Aerodynamics'), which was published in 1919. Upon returning to Cambridge T. completed research on electrical discharges in gases - the work that he began as a student under the guidance of his father. In it he discovered - along with Francis I. Aston - that the element lithium exists in the form of two isotopes with masses of 6 and 7.
In 1922, Mr.. T. became professor of natural philosophy (physics) at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland, and held that post until 1930, when he was appointed professor of physics at Imperial College in London. In 1952, Mr.. He returned to Cambridge as head of Corpus Christi College, where he remained until the resignation in 1962
It was in Aberdeen T. made his most significant contribution to theoretical physics. In the period between 1919 and 1927. American physicist, Clinton J. Davisson (in collaboration with K. Kunsmanom and Lester Germer) studied the interaction of electrons with metal surfaces. Using electron beams and single-crystal metal targets, . This group of scientists, . working in the laboratories of the telephone companies 'Bell', . experimentally proved the existence of electron diffraction by crystals - the phenomenon, . predicted more Louis de Broglie, . who put forward the hypothesis that, . that electrons have a wave nature, . with the electron wavelength is inversely proportional to its speed,
. Crucial experiments were carried out by these scientists in January 1927, when they managed to register the phenomenon of interference caused by the diffraction of electrons on a single crystal of nickel.
T. learned about research Davisson in September 1926, when two scientists met at a conference in Oxford. Back in Aberdeen, he began to study the interaction of electrons with thin solid films in a vacuum instead of the more complex gas environment. T. asked one of his students, Alexander Reid, to target a very thin film of celluloid. Many of the electrons with high energy, passing through such a film, rejected, forming a photographic plate placed behind the target diffraction rings. With the increasing energy at angles of deflection of the electrons decreases, which confirmed the wavelike behavior of electrons.
Because the structure of celluloid was then still unknown, T. and Reed switched to a metal target (aluminum, gold, platinum) with a well-studied crystal lattice. In each case, the electrons are deviated formed a clearly visible ring whose dimensions are perfectly consistent with the formula of de Broglie. Experiments T. gave decisive experimental confirmation of the hypothesis on the wave nature of high-energy electrons, thereby complementing the results of Davisson, who had to deal with low energy electrons.
T. and Davisson shared in 1937. Nobel Prize in Physics 'for the experimental discovery of electron diffraction by crystals'. When presenting the winners Hans Pleyel, . Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, . said: 'With the help of electron beams has been possible to explain, . how the structure of metal surfaces varies with different mechanical, . temperature and chemical effects,
. In addition, it was possible to set the properties of thin layers of gas and powder '. Illness prevented T. attend the awards ceremony, but next year he went to Stockholm to read the Nobel lecture.
After 1937. T. repeatedly served as a scientific advisor to the British Ministry of Aviation. In 1941, Mr.. his committee gave the British government concluded, in which the production of atomic bombs recognized feasible. This recommendation has influenced the British decision to take part in the Manhattan Project. After the Second World War T. participated actively in the work on controlled thermonuclear fusion. He spoke in support of maximum international cooperation in developing nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. His last contributions to physics he made in 1951, when investigated showers of cosmic particles in cosmic rays emitted by the stars.
In 1924, Mr.. T. married Kathleen Buchanan, daughter of the rector of Aberdeen University. They had two sons and two daughters, whom Thomson had to bring up one after the death of his wife in 1941. Since childhood T. fond manufacturing miniature models of ships, he loved to let them on the water. His colleague Michael Makkrum somehow remembered that 'the ability of T. interconnect a variety of facts, his rich memory, broad-minded and penetrating mind with an insatiable thirst for exchange of views made table-talk with him simply delicious'.
T. was ennobled in 1943. Among his numerous awards is the Hughes Medal (1939) and the Royal Medal (1949) Royal Society of London, the Franklin Medal (1960) Franklinovskogo Institute and the Faraday Medal (1960) Institute of Electrical and Electronics. He was a foreign member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Lisbon Academy of Sciences, as well as a corresponding member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences.