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WALTON (Walton), Ernest

( Irish physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1951)

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Biography WALTON (Walton), Ernest
genus. October 6, 1903
Irish physicist Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton was born in Dangarvane (County Waterford) and was the son of John Arthur Walton, a Methodist clergyman, and Anne Elizabeth (nцLe Sinton) Walton. Family periodically changed their place of residence as head of the family receiving a new arrival. Junior Y. their schooling was in schools and Benbridzha Kukstauna. In 1915, Mr.. He entered the Methodist College in Belfast and graduated with honors in 1922. Then Y. enrolled at Trinity College at Dublin University, where he studied mathematics and physics at the fellowship fund and received a bachelor's degree in 1926. He remained at Trinity College for another year for the experimental and theoretical work on turbulence of the liquid and a Masters Degree in 1927
In the same year I. received a government scholarship to study nuclear physics under the guidance of Ernest Rutherford at the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University, where he defended his doctoral thesis 1931. Rutherford had recently shown by bombarding nitrogen with alpha particles (helium ions) emitted by radioactive source that the nucleus can be split. Similarly, the same way he got out of the nitrogen atoms of oxygen atoms, thus becoming the first man who managed to turn one element into another by means of external influence. To achieve new nuclear transformations, Rutherford and co-workers tried to invent a device that would bombard the nucleus more rapidly moving particles.
. Many other scientists also were keenly interested in the creation of such devices, using both direct methods that use a single electrical pulse, and indirect, where the particles are accelerated, less pulse a few times
. In subsequent years, when it became available, more powerful sources of energy, both methods were used as a model for the development of the betatron and linear accelerator. Soon after his arrival in Cambridge U. proposed to determine the possibility of accelerating electrons in a circular path, surrounded by electric and magnetic fields. Although his first machine accelerated electrons during their movement in a circular orbit, this was not enough to penetrate the nucleus and thus split it. His second device quickened heavier positively charged particles, moving them forward in straight lines with varying electric power.
In 1929, Mr.. U. joined forces with John Cockcroft, who also tried to create particle accelerators. Difficulties in achieving this goal have been linked with the need to use very high energy so that the positively charged nuclei repel positively charged particles, they were bound. The calculations showed that only particles dispersed by using energy more than a few million electron volts (a value approximately ten times more than the level achieved in the late 20's.), Can overcome this barrier.
In 1929, Mr.. Cockcroft decided to use for nuclear transformations of the least attractive direct method, but make it a new ingenious method that does not require acceleration of particles with energy in million electron-volts. To achieve this, Cockcroft took advantage of a brilliant idea, which came to him after he read in 1928. Article physicist of Russian origin, George (George) Gamow. Gamow suggested that if the atomic particles will make a wave motion, some of them may leave the atomic nucleus, although, according to the classical theory of particles, they should not have such an opportunity.
. Probably thought Gamow, some alpha particles could leave the nucleus by examining a very large number of nuclei
. When Gamow visited the Cavendish Laboratory at around the same time, Cockroft had the opportunity to ask him, about whether the reverse process, in other words, whether the positively charged particles of low energy to penetrate the core. Gamow calculated that it is possible if the kernel to send a sufficiently large number of alpha particles.
Encouraged by the theory of Gamow, Cockcroft and Y. several years been working to develop reliable and efficient particle accelerator, through which could be directed at the core of a sufficiently large number of positively charged particles. Putting these particles a few hundred thousand electron-volts, Cockroft and Y. have split the atom in the beginning of 1932. One out of every ten million alpha particles to light atoms like lithium and boron, split core and releases energy.
Becoming Fellow in 1932, Y. remained in Cambridge for two years. During this time he continued his work on the transformation of atomic nuclei of other elements. In 1934, Mr.. He returned to Ireland and became a member of the Board of Trinity College, in 1974. he became an honorary member of the retired. From 1946 to 1974. he served as professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy in trine College.
Y. divided in 1951. Nobel Prize in physics with Cockcroft 'for the research work to make atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles'. Jobs Cockcroft and Y. was a bold leap forward into a new field of study - said Ivar Waller, a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, awarded at the presentation - they open the impetus for the subsequent rapid development of nuclear physics. We can say that this work is indeed marked a completely new epoch in nuclear research. "
His studies have. Cockcroft and not only showed the possibility of transformation of atomic particles is completely under human control and without the use of radioactive materials, but also undertook a nuclear reaction, accompanied by large amounts of energy. Moreover, their experiments yielded the first major confirmation of the theory of Albert Einstein, or rather, his formula, which expresses the equivalence of mass and energy. Other studies have. worked on hydrodynamics, microwaves and other aspects of nuclear physics.
He married in 1934. to Winifred Isabel Wilson, a kindergarten teacher, were born two sons and two daughters. W., which is described as quiet, not very social person, likes to relax by working in the garden.
Y. - Member of the Royal Irish Academy of Sciences and the Royal Dublin Society, has worked in advisory committees at the Dublin Institute of Fundamental Research and the Royal Hospital in Dublin city. He was awarded the Hughes Medal of the Royal Society of London (1938) and holds honorary degrees at Queen's University in Belfast and Gustavus Adolphus College in Minnesota.


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BARROW Errol Walton (Barrow Errol Walton)
Cockcroft (Cockcroft), John
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WALTON (Walton), Ernest, photo, biography
WALTON (Walton), Ernest, photo, biography WALTON (Walton), Ernest  Irish physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1951, photo, biography
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