FEYNMAN Richard( The American physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965)
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Biography FEYNMAN Richard
May 11, 1918, Mr.. - 15 February 1988
American physicist Richard Phillips Feynman was born in New York, the son of Arthur Melville Feynman and Lucille Phillips nee. However, the younger sister, he grew up in Far-Rokevey, in Queens (New York area). Father F., sales manager factory for the production of uniforms, bore a deep interest in science and encouraged his son to conduct experiments in a home laboratory. Together with his high school buddy F. arranged for neighbors presentation by showing some simple chemical tricks. Even as a high school student, he earned pocket expenses repairing radios. Being the captain of the school team in algebra, F. discovered the ability to quickly solve puzzling math problems, treating them as a whole and avoiding cumbersome calculations.
After completing secondary school in 1935. F. entered the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and in 1939. graduated with honors with a bachelor's degree in physics. At MIT, later recalled, F., he realized that 'the most important issue at that time was the poor state of the quantum theory of electricity and magnetism (quantum electrodynamics)'. Quantum electrodynamics has been studying the interactions between elementary particles and between particles and the electromagnetic field.
Many provisions of the then existing theory, created by Werner Heisenberg, Wolfgang Pauli and P.A. M. Dirac, received brilliant confirmation, but its structure was not quite clear moments, such as an infinite mass and infinite charge of an electron. F. began to develop a radically new theoretical approaches to solving these problems. He called the assumption of the action of an electron by itself (namely, it was an endless source of, . or divergences) 'stupid' and suggested that, . that the electrons have only the effect of other electrons, . with a delay due to the distance separating them,
. This approach eliminates the very concept of the field, and thus get rid of the other infinities, brought a lot of trouble. Although F. and failed to achieve satisfactory results, innovative thinking, he kept on all subsequent years.
In 1939, Mr.. F. graduate studies at Princeton University and received a scholarship proctorial. During graduate school, he continued to experiment with various approaches to quantum electrodynamics, learning from mistakes, discarding the failed schemes and trying many new ideas, some of which are born in the interviews with the director, John A. Wheeler. F. sought to preserve the principle of retarded action of one electron to another: the electron, . experience the action of another electron, . in turn, affects him with some additional delay, . like light, . reflected back, . to its source,
. On the advice of EF Wheeler. suggested that such reflection is not only the emission of ordinary retarded waves, but the 'advanced', reaching the electron before it begins its ripple effect on other electron. The paradoxical course of time, this is not only forward but also back him not to worry, as acknowledged later F.: 'By the time I was already sufficiently became a physicist, not to say:' Oh no, this is impossible! "
. After many months of Mathematical prikidok, failures and attempts to find new approaches F
. succeeded in transforming the concepts and equations from different points of view. He managed to find original ways to incorporate quantum mechanics in classical electrodynamics and to develop methods to quickly and easily obtain the results required for the traditional approach cumbersome calculations. One of his most successful ideas was to apply the principle of least action, based on the assumption that nature chooses for the particular target the most economical way. Although F. and was not satisfied with their achievements, but he realized that he had made significant progress in addressing the problem, and his work has been recognized. F. published his dissertation 'The principle of least action in quantum mechanics' ( 'The Principle of Least Action in Quantum Mechanics') and in 1942. received his doctorate in physics.
Shortly before the completion of the dissertation F. received an invitation to work from a group of Princeton physicists concerned with separation of uranium isotopes for the needs of the Manhattan Project, ie. to build an atomic bomb. From 1942 to 1945. F. headed the Los Alamos (New Mexico) groups working in the department, Hans A. Bethe. Even in these years, he found time to think while traveling in a bus, making the necessary calculations on scraps of paper, on the further development of his proposed version of quantum electrodynamics. At Los Alamos, F. communicated with Niels Bohr, Ore Bohr, Enrico Fermi. Robert Oppenheimer and other leading physicists. He was among those present at the first atomic test in Almogordo (New Mexico).
After the war, summer 1945. F. spent working with Hans A. Bethe in the company 'General Electric' in Schenectady (NY). Then he became an associate professor of theoretical physics at Cornell University. Meanwhile, before the quantum electrodynamics was faced with new questions. Thus, in 1947. Willis E. Lamb with precision experiments showed that the two energy levels, which, in Dirac's theory, would have to conform to the same value of energy is actually slightly different ( 'Lamb shift'). Another discrepancy between theory and experiment was found Kushem Polycarp, who found that the intrinsic magnetic moment of an electron by more than 0,1% more than its orbital magnetic moment.
Based on the fundamental work of Bethe, F. was initiated to address these fundamental problems, but soon he had a period of stagnation caused by his own opinion, the fact that physics has ceased to provide him with pleasure as an intellectual game. After some time he happens to be a witness as in the cafeteria at Cornell University amused someone, throwing a plate into the air, and became interested in the dependence between the speed of rotation of plates and 'Yaw'. F. been lifted out of the equation describing the flight of plates. This exercise enabled him to restore the powers of the soul, and he resumed his work on quantum electrodynamics. 'What I did, it seemed, had no special significance - later wrote F., - but in reality this was laid a great sense. Diagrams and everything else, for that I have received the Nobel Prize, has its origins in the seemingly senseless fuss with a flying saucer '.
. 'All else' was a new version of the theory, in which quantum interactions were considered from a new perspective - a trajectory in space-time
. They say that the particle extends from the initial point of the trajectory in the final, possible interactions 'on the road' are expressed in terms of their relative probabilities. These probabilities are summarized in a series of (sometimes complex), to calculate that F. developed rules and graphical techniques (Feynman diagrams). Outwardly simple, but extremely comfortable, charts are widely used in many fields of physics. F. could explain the 'Lamb shift', the magnetic moment of the electron and other properties of the particles.
Regardless of the F. and from each other on the basis of other theoretical approaches, Julius C. Schwinger and Tomonaga Sinitiro almost simultaneously offered their versions of quantum electrodynamics, and managed to overcome the main difficulties. Used their mathematical procedure called renormalization. Had delivered so much trouble managed to avoid divergences, . postulating the positive and negative infinity, . which are almost completely cancel each other, . and the balance (eg, . electron charge) corresponds to the experimentally measured values,
. Quantum electrodynamics Feynman - Schwinger - Tomonaga considered the most accurate of the currently known physical theories. The correctness of its confirmed experimentally in a wide range of scales - from subatomic to astronomical.
Together with Schwinger and Tomonaga O. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 1965. 'for fundamental work on quantum electrodynamics, had profound implications for the physics of elementary particles'. In a speech at the award ceremony Ivar Waller of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences noted that the laureates have brought new ideas and methods in the old theory and created a new, now occupies a central position in physics. It not only explains the previous discrepancy between theory and experiment, but also allows a deeper understanding of the behavior of mu-meson and other particles in nuclear physics, solid state and problems of statistical mechanics.
F. remained at Cornell University until 1950, then moved to the California Institute of Technology for the post of Professor of Theoretical Physics. Also in 1959. He won an honorary position, established in memory of Richard Chase Tolman. In addition to work on quantum electrodynamics, F. proposed to explain the atomic theory of liquid helium, developed by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau. Helium, liquescent at 4 б¦ K (-269 б¦ C), becomes superfluid about 2 б¦ K. Dynamics of superfluid helium is in sharp contrast with the laws, . which satisfy the usual fluid: when it cools during, . not heated, freely flows through a microscopically narrow openings, . 'defying' gravity, . creeping up the walls of the vessel,
. F. brought rotons, Landau postulated to explain the unusual behavior of superfluid helium. The explanation lies in the fact that the atoms are very cold helium rotons in the aggregate, forming a kind of smoke rings.
Together with his associate Murray Gell-Mann S. made a significant contribution to the theory of weak interactions, such as beta particles emitted by radioactive nuclei. This theory was born of the diagrams F., enabling graphic display of the interaction of elementary particles and their possible transformation. Recent work F. devoted to the strong interaction, ie. forces holding the nucleons in the nucleus and the force between subnuclear particles, or 'partons' (eg, quarks), which make up protons and neutrons.
Originality of thought and artistry F. as a lecturer influenced a generation of physics students. His method is intuitive guess the formula and then prove its correctness is more imitators than critics. The influence of his theories, and his personality is felt in every section of modern physics of elementary particles.
F. married three times. Army X. Greenbaum, whom he married in 1941, died of tuberculosis in 1945, when V. was in Los Alamos. His marriage to Mary Louise Bell, a prisoner in 1952, ended in divorce. In 1960, Mr.. He married in England on Gvenet Howarth. They had a son and a daughter. Sincere and disrespectful to authority, F. was a member of the presidential commission that investigated the circumstances of the explosion of space shuttle 'Challenger' in 1986. He compiled a record of your own trinadtsatistranichny, . which criticized the senior staff of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for, . that they show 'fooled', . not see any significant deficiencies in the design of the spacecraft,
. Man irrepressible curiosity and diverse interests, F. to enjoy playing the drums 'bongo', studied the Japanese language, drawing and paint, was involved in deciphering Mayan texts and showed keen interest in the wonders of parapsychology, treating them, however, skeptical.
. In addition to the Nobel Prize, F
. was awarded the Albert Einstein Memorial Foundation Lewis and Rosa Strauss (1954), . Prize-winning physicist Ernest Orlando Lawrence Atomic Energy Commission, the United States of America (1962) and the international gold medal at the Niels Bohr Danish Society of Civil Engineers, . electricians and mechanics (1973),
. F. was a member of the American Physical Society. Brazilian Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society of London. He was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, but later resigned