Antony Hewish (Hewich), Anthony( English Radioastron Nobel Prize in Physics, 1974)
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Biography Antony Hewish (Hewich), Anthony
born May 11, 1924
English RadioAstron Antony Hewish, the youngest of three sons of a banker Ernest William Hewish and nee Frances Grace Lenvon Pinch, was born in g. Foy (Cornwall). Childhood years he spent in Nyukee on the north coast of Cornwall. From 1935 to 1942. H. studied at King's College Taunton. In 1942, Mr.. he entered the University of Cambridge, but the following year left him to take part in the development protivoradarnyh devices for aircraft in the Office of Telecommunication Research in Malvern. There he first began working with Martin Riley. In 1946, Mr.. H. returned to Cambridge and in 1948. finished his. Immediately after graduating from university X. became a member of the group led by Riley radio astronomical research at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge.
Continuing his studies, X. in 1952. defended his doctoral dissertation at Cambridge on radiosonde upper air. All scientific activities X. held at the Cavendish Laboratory and Mallardovskoy Radio Astronomy Observatory, . where he served as research assistant (1952 ... 1954), . a visiting member of the College (1955 ... 1961), . Member, . scientific leader and lecturer at Churchill College (1961 1969), . Teacher (1969 1971) and professor of astronomy (1971),
. In 1972. X. was a visiting professor of astronomy at Yale University.
After receiving his doctorate X. continued with the help of radio studies of Earth's upper atmosphere and solar wind - a stream of charged particles (plasma) emitted by the Sun's surface. H. involved in assembling the elements of the radio antenna and made some observations of radio emission of the solar corona. In 1954, Mr.. He predicted a glimmer of radio sources with small angular diameter airwaves, . emitted by such sources, . passing through outer space, . filled with gas with variable density (the solar wind with a weakly expressed clots), . should slightly deviate from the original direction,
. This result in rapid, measured in seconds variation of the received signal. This effect, called the Flicker in the interplanetary space (MMP), similar to the flickering stars whose light passes through Earth's atmosphere that has variable density. If the angular size of source waves (whether radio, . or light) are large enough, . that flicker is observed, . as signals, . going from different parts of the source, . form at the observation point complex image, . in which individual flicker averaged.,
. As small radio sources at that time were not yet known, X
. did not seek confirmation of his hypothesis. But later, in 1964, X. and his colleagues P.F. Scott and D. Wills was able to observe MMP. Realizing that the IMF could be a good tool for probing the interplanetary gas and determine the angular diameter of the small radio sources, X. two years measured the solar wind velocity in the plane of circulation of the planets, and in the perpendicular direction.
In 1967. was completed a radio telescope, designed X. to study the influence of the solar corona to the radiation from distant point sources through the use of MMP. Postgraduate X. Jocelyn Bell Barnel, participated in the creation of a telescope, beginning with his help search for radio sources with rapidly and significantly changing the amplitude of the signal. Such volatility would indicate a strong MMP. After two months of searching she had found a radio source. Closer investigation showed that it emits pulses of radio waves with a very stable frequency. It was soon discovered and other pulsars (pulsating stars), all of which had a smaller diameter than any planet, and were at a distance of more than 300 parsecs (1 parsec - 3.0857 бT 1016 m). Prior to defined the nature of pulsars, X. expressed purely speculative suggestion that such periodic signals can be messages from extraterrestrial civilizations. For a reminder of this hypothesis is far from the truth can be found in journals of observations, in which the hand X. the first four pulsars are marked as 1 LGM, LGM 2, etc.. (LGM means "Little Green Men" - 'little green men').
. Of the few astronomical objects that have such small dimensions, as pulsars, the most famous so-called white dwarf stars with masses approximately equal to the mass of the Sun, and with a diameter comparable to the diameter of the Earth
. Although astronomers predicted the existence of neutron stars with masses about twice the mass of the sun, and with a diameter of about 10 km, none of them was found. Some astronomers have suspected the existence of black holes, objects are smaller, but X. believed that they can not emit radio waves. In 1968. X. suggested, . that the source of radio waves, . emitted by pulsars, . serve as a high-frequency oscillations excited white dwarf (it was known, . that the natural frequency of the white dwarf is much lower), . or fluctuations of the neutron star at its natural frequency,
. In the same year, British astronomer Thomas Gold proposed the theory, . was further confirmed, . according to which the pulsar is rotating around its own axis neutron star with a strong magnetic field (approximately 1015 times greater than Earth's magnetic field), . surrounded by a cloud of conductive rarefied gas (plasma), . which emits a rotating beam,
. Since it was open at least 130 pulsars.
X. and Riley was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 1974. 'for pioneering research in the field of radio physics'. The decision of the Nobel Committee highlighted the crucial role that the X. played in the discovery of pulsars. Introducing the winners, Hans Wilhelmson of the Royal Swedish Academy said: 'Radio astronomy provides a unique opportunity to explore what is happening, but in reality happened very long ago, at immense distances from Earth. X. played a crucial role in the discovery of pulsars. This discovery, which represents an extraordinary scientific interest, has paved the way for new methods of investigation of matter under extreme physical conditions'.
Following the award of the Nobel Prize X. continues to study MMP distant radio sources. He proved that the most powerful radio sources have unusually small size. Watching the small radio sources at all distances from the Galaxy, X. subjected to testing cosmological theories.
In 1950, Mr.. X. married Marjorie Richards. They had a son and a daughter. X. likes to go sailing, swimming, gardening, tinkering something, listen to music.
He holds honorary degrees from universities of Leicester and Eksterskogo, a member of Royal Society of London. Royal Astronomical Society and American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Among his numerous awards Eddington Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1969), . Albert Michelson Medal Franklinovskogo Institute (1973), . Olveka Medal and Prize of the French Physical Society (1974), . Hughes Medal of the Royal Society of London (1977).,