STARK Johannes( German physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1919)
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Biography STARK Johannes
April 15, 1874, Mr.. - June 21, 1957
German physicist Johannes Stark was born in Shikenhofe (Bavaria) in the family of the landowner. Studied in secondary schools Bayreuth and Regensburg, and in 1894. enrolled in the University of Munich, where in 1897. defended his doctoral thesis entitled 'Studies on the soot' ( "Investigation on Lampblack"). That same autumn Z. became assistant Eugen Lommel in Munich. In 1900, Mr.. SH. passes in the University of GöTttingen as an assistant to Edward Rikke and simultaneously becomes the assistant professor (part-time lecturer) at the same university. In GöTttingen W. performs the following six years, and has time to prove himself as a talented experimental physicist and 'prickly' personality. Its main scientific interest at the time - the behavior of ions in electric fields. In 1904. he founded the magazine 'Yearbook of radioactivity and electronics' ( "Jahrbuch der Radioakti-vitat und Elektronik"), who edits for nine years.
In 1905, Mr.. SH. observing the Doppler shift in the channel rays. Duct-rays are a stream of positive ions (charged atoms), moving with acceleration in a vacuum to the electrode and passing through holes (channels) in it. As discovered Wilhelm Wien, and the ions are accelerated to extremely high velocities, the movement of ions affects the observed frequency of light emitted by. The frequencies are lowered when the ions move away from the observer, and increases when the ions move toward the observer. This change in frequency or Doppler effect is well known from the spectra of stars (the spectrum is a series of colored lines, resulting in the separation of light on its constituent frequencies, or wavelengths). But W. was the first who were able to observe the Doppler effect in the radiation from the terrestrial source.
At the beginning of his scientific work W. great sympathy for the theories that break with the ideas of classical physics. When Albert Einstein in 1905. proposed the special theory of relativity, W. was among its first supporters, and since the theory of relativity describes the behavior of moving bodies, he offered his observations of the Doppler effect in the confirmation of the theory of relativity. In 1907, Mr.. He turns to Einstein to provide for publication in "Jahrbuch der Radioaktivitat und Electronik" article on the theory of relativity and are strongly advocated the idea of Einstein's corpuscular nature of light (under certain circumstances light behaves like a stream of particles - corpuscles, . or portions of energy - photons), . is rejected until the 20-ies.,
. In 1906, Mr.
. SH. left GöTttingen to take up the post of professor at the Technical University of Hanover. But the new place of his difficult nature leads to complications in relations with his boss, who has repeatedly tried to dismiss W. This complex relationship has been resolved only in 1909, when with the help of theoretical physicist Arnold Sommerfeld W. becomes full (real) professor at the Technical University in Aachen. However, shortly W. quarrels with Sommerfeld about the nature of X-ray radiation emitted by electrons when braking. The first claimed. that to explain the characteristics of this phenomenon requires quantum theory, whereas the latter believed to adequately describe the phenomenon rather classical electromagnetism. The argument of the parties, which was conducted in the pages of scientific journals, over the heavy quarrel, and never again, they did not renew friendships.
In 1896, Mr.. Netherlands physicist Pieter Zeeman discovered that the magnetic field applied to luminous gas, breaks down each of its spectral lines of three or more lines are located very close to each other (Zeeman effect). In 1913, Mr.. S., and taking advantage of this time, channel beams, carries a similar splitting of spectral lines of hydrogen in an external electric field. This phenomenon, known as the Stark effect, tried unsuccessfully to reproduce the other scientists. In the framework of classical electromagnetic theory of the Stark effect was inexplicable.
But in early 1913. Niels Bohr proposed a quantum theory of hydrogen atom. According to this theory, electrons occupy well-defined orbits, each of which corresponds a specific energy level. In the Bohr theory of hydrogen spectral lines occur at the transitions of electrons from one orbit to another. Each transition is accompanied by emission of a certain wavelength. As shown in 1916. Paul Sommerfeld and Einstein, imposed from outside the electric field changes the electron orbits in an atom. This gives rise to different energy levels and those same multiples of the spectral lines observed by W. Thus, the opening W. confirmed the atomic model of Bohr and quantum theory in general.
In 1919, Mr.. SH. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics "for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields'. Speaking at the presentation ceremony the winner, A.G. Ekstrand, a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, said: 'Opening ... proved an effective means of proof that the channel particle beams are illuminated atoms or atomic ions. Further study of the Doppler effect in the spectra of canal rays, carried out mainly W. and his disciples, led to an extremely important result, not only on the canal rays themselves, but also about the nature of the different spectra, which can emit in different circumstances, the same chemical element. "
. After the discovery of the effect now bearing his name, scientific and political views W
. becoming more reactionary. Despite the fact that his own work was an important confirmation of the Bohr model of the atom, W. never adopted the findings of Bohr. In his Nobel lecture, he asserted that Bohr's model is contrary to 'the spirit of physics'. The enthusiasm with which he once belonged to Einstein's theory, disappeared, and, although the quantum theory and relativity theory received more scientific basis, he rejected both theories. SH. hostile attitude to the political views of Einstein (in the First World War, Einstein followed pacifist views), and his scientific works. In 1917, Mr.. SH. intended to take the post of professor of physics at Gottingen University, . but was refused and accepted the offer to become professor of physics at the University of Greyfevaldskogo, . Teachers who adhere to conservative academic and political views.,
. Wary of the democratic Weimar government, postwar Germany and the Berlin physicists, who played a major role in the Deutsche Physical Society, W
. in 1920. attempts to organize an independent physical association in the hope that the association will be able to act as a consultant to government. From this venture did not work: not supported by the association of physicists could not exert any influence on the Weimar government. Also in 1920. SH. takes the chair of physics University of Wö+rzburg, but a quarrel with his colleagues forced him two years to resign. When she was in Wurzburg, he becomes the owner of a porcelain factory. This step of his many physicists considered unethical, because a significant proportion of the capital was borrowed them from the Nobel Prize.
After the failure of the venture with a porcelain factory W. attempts to return to academic work. He puts forward his candidacy for the vacant post of Director of the State Physical-Technical Institute in Berlin, . but fails to contest the next few years holds in the forced resignation of the family estate near Traunshteyna in Bavaria,
. SH. expected to take several academic positions, but each time his candidacy is rejected, apparently because he made too many enemies. One of the few remaining allies, W. was Philipp von Lenard, an ardent opponent of what he called the Lenard 'Jewish dogmatic physics'. SH. becomes one of the leading proponent of the Aryan physics (to explain himself Lenard, this term he meant physics, 'rejectionist vysokoabstraktnye theory, developed by Jewish physicists'). His main enemy of the supporters of the Aryan physicists consider Einstein.
As a native of southern Germany, W. was familiar with the Nazi party and supported Adolf Hitler since the early 20-ies. When in 1933. Nazis came to power and the position of director of the State Physical-Technical Institute, once again became vacant, the party ties W. provided him with this post. As director of the institute, he harbored ambitious plans to reorganize the whole of German science. SH. assumed the presidency and in Germanskoy Research Association. However, because of the fervor, . with which he attacked all the scientists (not necessarily Jews), . dared to speak in defense of modern physics, . including Sommerfeld, . Max von Laue and Werner Heisenberg, . which he called 'white Jews in science', . its influence among the German physicists were low,
. In addition, W. made enemies of the Reich Ministry of Education, which operated under the auspices of the Research Association. None of his plans went awry, and finally W. fell into disfavor with the Nazi ideologue Alfred Rosenberg. In 1936, Mr.. after the failure of the scheme of gold mining, which he supported, W. was forced to resign. However, until 1939. He remained as director of the State Physical-Technical Institute.
After 1939. SH. retirement and living on his estate, which is building for a private laboratory. His last attempt to do independent scientific activity - the alleged discovery of deformation of the light beam in a nonuniform electric field - a failure.
W. was married to Louise Yupler. From this marriage were born five children. Leisure Time W. loved to engage in forestry and horticulture. He died June 21, 1957
In addition to the Nobel Prize, W. Baumgartner was awarded the Vienna Academy of Sciences Award Vahlbruch GöTttingen Academy of Sciences and the gold medal Matteuchchi the Italian National Academy of Sciences. He was a member of the GöTttingen Academy of Sciences, Rome, Leiden, Vienna and Calcutta.