Edward Appleton( English physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1947)
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Biography Edward Appleton
September 6, 1892, Mr.. - April 21, 1965
English physicist Edward Appleton was born in Bradford (Yorkshire). From his father, Peter Appleton, a factory worker, and mother, Mary (nee Wilcock) Appleton, the boy had inherited a keen interest in music, but for sixteen years suddenly became interested in physics and mathematics. A brilliant student, he won scholarships to study in Hensonskoy high school, where he studied from 1903 to 1911 and the College of St.. John in Cambridge, where he studied under the guidance of Ernest Rutherford and Dzh.Dzh. Thomson, awarded prizes to mineralogy and physics and received a bachelor's degree summa cum laude in 1913
The scholarship allowed him to stay in Cambridge to pursue graduate studies under the guidance of U.G. Bragg on the crystallographic structure of metals and minerals.
When in 1914. outbreak of World War I, E. took part in it, being in an infantry battalion. Soon he was transferred to the Corps of Engineers, where as a liaison officer, he studied radio and investigated the problem of attenuation of radio signals, and working with vacuum tubes, became interested in this area. Back at the end of the war in Cambridge, he continued his research on the use of vacuum tubes in radio.
E. was elected a Member of the College of St.. John in 1919. and the following year was appointed assistant-demonstrator in physics at the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University. However CH.T.R. Wilson, he began to study the radiation of radio waves during storms.
In 1924, aged 32, E. became professor of physics, University of London. In the same year, together with Miles Barnett, his first graduate student, he began to study wave propagation in the atmosphere. In 1902, Mr.. English physicist Oliver Heaviside proposed, . that in the upper atmosphere is ionized electric layer, . able to reflect the long radio waves, it was thanks to this layer radio signal Guglielmo Marconi succeeded in the previous year to cross the Atlantic Ocean,
. E. questioned whether radio waves reflected from the Heaviside Layer - Kennel, interfere with radio waves propagating directly from the land, leading to the nighttime attenuation of signals, which he watched.
. With the help of 'British Broadcasting' E
. Barnet and carried out various frequencies of radio waves reflected from the Heaviside Layer - Kennel 11 December 1924, Mr.. With their method, . now known as radiolocation with frequency modulation, . able to obtain the first experimental confirmation of the existence of the ionosphere, . determine its height, . equal to 60 miles above the ground, this method gave impetus to the development of Radio Engineering and paved the way for the invention of radar.,
. Two years later, after measuring the height of the ionosphere E
. opened a second non-conducting layer located at an altitude of 150 miles above the ground. Increased resistance of this layer, now known as the Appleton layer, allows him to reflect short-wave radio signals. This discovery E. established the possibility of direct broadcasting to the world.
With the interference of reflected radio waves and waves propagating along the surface of the Earth, E. continued to explore the detailed structure and properties of high-altitude ionosphere rest of my life. Observing the effect of total solar eclipse in 1927, he found that both education and behavior of the ionosphere is determined by the sunlight. Moving from radiointerferentsionnogo to radioimpulsnomu method of measuring height, which was used in the United States, E. with his colleagues measured the height and structure of the ionosphere in the polar regions and at lower latitudes. They found that the ionosphere is influenced by the particles emitted by the Sun (solar wind) as well as from solar ultraviolet radiation. Finally, they determined that the height of the ionosphere is exposed to lunar tides.
Two years after CH.T.R. Wilson retired in 1934, E. took the professor's bet on natural philosophy at Cambridge University. Prominent members of the international community in the field of radio, he was president of the International Union of scientists in the field of radio from 1934 to 1952
Since the beginning of the Second World War in 1939. E. was appointed Secretary of the Office of Scientific and Industrial Research - the leading research institutions in the UK. In this capacity, he not only led the research in the field of military radio communications, but also coordinated the efforts of Britain to build the atom bomb. The research team, which he collected in the early 30's., Took up radar, which finally enabled the British military effectively reflect the Germanic air raids. According to Robert Watson-Watt, who has worked on improving radar as the British secret weapon, if there were no earlier studies, E., the radar would have appeared too late to play a crucial role in the Battle of Britain in 1940. For services in this field E. in 1941. was ennobled. While the war lasted, E. began to draw up a program of post-war reconstruction, . according to which the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, and in general, scientists will have to play an important role in the restoration of transport, . establishing supply of food and addressing the housing issue.,
. In 1947, Mr.
. E. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics' for the study of physics of the upper atmosphere, especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer ". When presenting the winner of Eric HultцLn, a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, described the theoretical aspects of research, E., and then went on to describe some of the practical benefits. He noted that the 'echo method, developed by E. and his staff ... should be seen as the forerunner of radar techniques which have been used successfully allies' during the Second World War. This technology, added HultцLn, also have important applications in meteorology and commercial radio broadcasting.
In 1949, Mr.. E. became vice-chancellor of the University of Edinburgh. An outstanding leader, devote much time administrative duties, he maintained an active interest in this work in the field of the atmosphere and was in close contact with scientists working in the same direction. During the International Geophysical Year (July 1957 - December 1958) he played a major role in planning the world's radio science.
In 1916, Mr.. E. married Jesse Long sleep, and they raised two daughters. In 1965, a year later, after his first wife died, E. married to Helen Allison. A month later he died in his home. Not very tall, endowed with uncommon energy, E. was known as a kind and gentle handling. Like his father, who for many years led the choir in the Church of Bradford, he also had a ringing tenor voice, and this gift of use to him as speaker, many speakers before the public.
Among the numerous awards E. a medal Hughes (1933) and the Royal Medal (1950) Royal Society of London, as well as the Albert Medal of the Royal Society of Arts (1950). He was awarded an honorary degree from the University of Aberdeen, London, Glasgow, Cincinnati, Oxford, Cambridge and other educational institutions. He has awards from the governments of the U.S., . Norway, . France and Iceland, . was a member of the Royal Society of London, . foreign member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, . Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, . American Meteorological Society, . Pontifical Academy of Sciences and many professional societies.,