BARTON (Barton), Derek( English chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1969)
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Biography BARTON (Barton), Derek
genus. September 8, 1918
English chemist Derek Harold Richard Barton was born in Gravesend, on the banks of the Thames, near London, the son of Thomas Williams, Burton and Maude (Henrietta) Barton. Receiving primary and secondary education in tonbridzhskoy school, he began to attend Dzhillingemsky Technical College, but in 1938. moved to Imperial College of Science and Technology, University of London, where in 1940. received an honorary degree (awarded by the University for outstanding scientific achievements without defending a thesis. - Ed.) Bachelor of science, and in 1942. - Ph.D. in organic chemistry. In the next two years he was involved in chemical research related to the objectives of Defense, and then briefly worked as a chemical engineer and researcher in the Birmingham company 'End Albright Wilson. "
After the war, in 1945, B. he became an assistant lecturer at the Department of Chemistry, Imperial College. Dedicated to him here in 1946 ... 1949. Scholarship for research work has allowed B. undertake a study of organic molecules, for which he had in 1949. second received his doctorate. The next year, working as a freelance lecturer in chemistry of natural compounds at Harvard University, B. interested in establishing the exact configuration of organic molecules.
By that time, when B. began his research, chemists were able to classify molecules on the basis of two fundamental characteristics: their composition (ie. the identification of their constituent atoms) and their configuration (ie. to establish the arrangement of atoms in a molecule, which was either symmetric with respect to the main axis, or asymmetric - levogyrate or dextrorotatory). However, the three-dimensional structure of molecules remained not entirely clear. Scientists have predicted that the ability to determine the shape of this molecule would provide them vital information about the chemical behavior and the nature of the entry of this molecule in the reaction with other molecules. Understanding the structure of organic molecules seem particularly promising, since these carbon-containing molecules that are easily connected with other atoms, represent the chemical content of living systems.
. While working at Harvard University, B
. interested in the different reaction rates for different types of steroids - an important group of organic compounds, which prevail in the bile acids, hormones and other physiological compounds. B. questioned as to whether these differences are explained by the physical structure of the molecule. In such molecules attached to each other carbon atoms form a closed structure called a ring. It was known that six-membered carbon rings can adopt a conformation (shape) baths, when there is intramolecular rotation with a simple connection. When rotating in the same direction enantiomer (mirror reflected the six-membered ring), he takes a chair conformation. As done previously, but little known work of the Norwegian chemist Odd Hassel proved that the chair conformation is preferred for the six-membered carbon rings, because it is more energetically favorable of the two possible conformations.
B. knew about the discovery of Hassel and applied them in developing his method for analyzing the structure of highly complex organic molecules. This method, . now known as the conformational analysis, . not only allowed size up and predict behavior in different conditions such biologically important molecules, . the molecules of steroids and hydrocarbons, . but also provides opportunities for chemists to study the structure of large molecules in three dimensions.,
. Upon his return to England in 1951
. B. started working at Birkbeck College, University of London, where two years later he was appointed Professor of Organic Chemistry. In 1955, Mr.. he became professor of chemistry at the royal chair (head of the department, established by King. - Ed.) At the University of Glasgow. Here he applied the method of conformational analysis for the study of many types of organic substances in t.ch. alkaloids, a class of complex molecules, which contains nicotine and morphine.
From 1957 to 1978. B. was a professor of organic chemistry at Imperial College of Science and Technology, University of London. During these years he also frequently lectured in the U.S.. During his stay at the Research Institute for Medicine and Chemistry in Cambridge (Massachusetts) in 1960. He developed a method for initiating chemical reactions by using light, which became known as the process of Barton. This process led to the synthesis of aldosterone - the hormone that helps regulate sodium and potassium in the kidneys.
In 1969. B. Hassel and was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for their contribution to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry'. In his Nobel lecture B. traced the development of conformational analysis, and described its application in chemistry and biology. 'It is interesting to watch - he concluded - as the hypothesis of an acorn grows the tree of knowledge'.
Upon his retirement from Imperial College of Science and Technology in 1978, B. became director of the Institute of Chemistry of Natural Compounds in Gif-sur-Iveta, France. Since 1960, Mr.. his interest in the conformational analysis was replaced by interest in areas such as photochemistry and biosynthesis.
In 1944, Mr.. B. married Jit Keith Wilkins, who bore him a son. After they parted, he made a second marriage. This time, his chosen ones were Christian Kone, a professor of French Lyceum in London.
Deeply devoted to scientific work, B. generously shares his knowledge, widely lecturing in the U.S. and Canada. The scientist has been awarded many prizes. Among them: Corday-Morgan Medal of the British Society of Chemistry (1951), . Fritzsche Award (1956) and Roger Adams Award (1959) American Chemical Society, . and Davy Medal (1961), . Royal Medal (1972) and Copley Medal (1980) Royal Society of London,
. B. - Member of the Royal Society of London and the Royal Society of Edinburgh, as well as a foreign member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He holds honorary degrees from Columbia, Oxford, University of Manchester and many others.