BERG (Berg), Paul( American biochemist and Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1980)
Comments for BERG (Berg), Paul
Biography BERG (Berg), Paul
genus. June 30, 1926
American biochemist Paul Berg, born in New York, Brooklyn. He was one of three sons of Harry and Sarah Berg (Brodsky) Berg. After graduating in 1943. Abraham Lincoln High School, B. enrolled in Pennsylvania State College to study biochemistry, but he had to interrupt their studies because of service in the naval forces of the U.S. in 1944 ... 1946. In 1946, Mr.. He returned to Pennsylvania State College and graduated in 1948, receiving a bachelor's degree in biochemistry. After graduating from college B. worked at the University of Western Reserve (now the University of Case-Western Reserve) in Cleveland (Ohio), where in 1952. he was awarded a doctoral degree. In 1952 ... 1953. it as postdoctoral fellows (the scholarship is allocated for the year after defending his doctoral dissertation. - Ed.) Conducted research at the Institute of cyto-physiology in Copenhagen and later in the year to conduct further research in this direction, together with Arthur Kornberg at Washington University in St. Louis. In 1955, Mr.. he became an assistant professor of microbiology at the University of Washington, in 1959. - Associate Professor at Stanford University, and in 1969. headed the Department of Biochemistry uproar.
Working under the guidance Kornberg, B. studied the chemical composition of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Molecule (polymer) DNA consists of two polynucleotide chains, each of which represents a linear sequence of molecules of monomers called nucleotides. In turn, each of the nucleotides is a nitrogenous bases, and their combination connects the polynucleotide chains. This structure is linked to other nucleotides and is a polypeptide chain. Programs embedded in specific codons - a combination of nucleotides, standing side by side in the DNA chain, which also include the 'instructions' on the synthesis of proteins from amino acids. Different types of RNA perform a specific job to lay the information in proteins. To proteins and enzymes are the same - the catalysts who complete a certain chain of nitrogen bases or cause the union of individual links in the chain.
At Stanford B. particularly interested in the role of transport ribonucleic acids (tRNA). These substances carry amino acids in a certain place during protein synthesis. In the process of synthesis of one end of the tRNA molecule corresponds to part of the program sequence, and the other is a special guidance amino acid codon (nucleotide triplet). Each species has its own amino tRNA molecule, whose structure described in 1965. Robert Y. Holley, Har Gobind Quran and Marshall have. Nirenberg. B., providing a pure variety of tRNA and enzymes to clarify the role of tRNA in protein synthesis.
By the mid 60's he. been studied in detail the genes of prokaryotes (bacteria that do not have decorated the cellular nucleus, such as bacteria). Much of the knowledge of them were due to, . that several different viruses could enter the cell bacterium Escherichia coli and, . Once having got there, . replace some of the DNA of the bacteria by their DNA, . forcing, . thus, . bacterium to produce a viral protein,
. Moreover, since each type of virus affects specific proteins, they were required to allocate and operate in a chemical to genes that have in Escherichia coli. B wanted to know whether such a method be developed to analyze and operate much more complex genes of multicellular organisms, in t.ch. the body.
Continuing this line of research, B. took a year off for research in Solkovskom Institute, where he worked with Renato Dulbecco. Dulbecco studied there shortly before the virus was discovered, called polio, which causes tumors in rodents. Polio represented for B. special interest not only because it can move between cells of mammals in the laboratory bath, but also because of its DNA could 'enter' and 'out' from the DNA of cells of the body, in which one gets the virus. Polio, thus, acted in many ways just as well-studied bacterial viruses, but it could be used for the study of mammalian cells.
Back in 1968. at Stanford University, B. began to study this virus-40 (SV40) - the virus that causes the appearance of tumors in monkeys and is closely associated with polio. Soon, however, he realized that the virus could better serve as a guide, if it had been modified in such a way that would include any part of the DNA helix mammalian cells, which would choose the experimenter. DNA molecules containing material taken from more than one type of organism, known as recombinant DNA molecules. Despite the fact that recombinant DNA molecules occur naturally in living organisms, B. believed that they could better understand, if obtained under laboratory conditions.
B. began his first experiment to obtain a recombinant DNA molecule approximately in 1970, taking for the SV40 virus and the well-studied Escherichia coli (bacteriophage н¦). The scientist added to these specific enzymes in normal non-interacting organisms and their severed DNA molecules in such places that they might be recombining. This method, however, proved highly controversial. Many scientists feared that the artificial viruses can generate new cancer-causing bacteria, and for this reason B. interrupted his experiments with recombinant DNA molecules. Over the next few years he has focused on developing more efficient and accurate way of operating SV40.
In 1974. with the active participation of SB, concern about the potential dangers associated with the study of recombinant DNA molecules, in their study was imposed one-year moratorium. The following year, the scientist was chairman of the international conference, outlining the general line of such studies. However, when scientists realized that the technology for the study of recombinant DNA molecules is not as dangerous as initially thought, they ceased to strictly follow the previously worked out rules. The technology, developed by B. and his colleagues made it possible not only to operate the genes to create new pharmaceuticals, such as interferon and growth hormones, but also the first time so deeply penetrate into the molecular biology of higher organisms.
In 1980. B. was awarded half the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for fundamental studies of biochemical properties of nucleic acids, particularly recombinant DNA'. The second half of the prize was split between Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger. In his Nobel lecture B. an overview of its research, emphasizing the constant need to deal with the existing ethical questions that arise in connection with experiments with recombinant DNA molecules. Nevertheless' breakthrough achieved by the study of recombinant DNA molecules, - he concluded - to provide a new effective approach to solving the issues that troubled mankind for centuries. "
After receiving the Nobel Prize B. continues to engage in research work at Stanford University, perfecting his method of molecular analysis of genes in higher animals. Since 1970, Mr.. He has served as professor of biochemistry at Stanford University Medical Center.
In 1947, Mr.. B. married Mildred Levy. In the couple have a son.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, B. Eli Lilly awarded the American Chemical Society (1959), reward VD. Mattia Roche Institute of Molecular Biology (1974), an annual award of Gardner Fund (1980), the Albert Lasker Award for basic medical research (1980) and the reward of the New York Academy of Sciences (1980). He is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. American Association for the Advancement of Science. American Academy of Arts and Sciences. American Society of Biochemistry and the American Chemical Society. The scientist was awarded honorary degrees from Rochester, and Yale universities.