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Bosch (Bosch), Carl

( German chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931)

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Biography Bosch (Bosch), Carl
August 27, 1874, Mr.. - April 26, 1940
German chemist Carl Bosch was born in Cologne, the son of Paula (Liebot) Bosch and Carl Bosch, a prosperous merchant, who was involved in the sale of natural gas and sanitary equipment. B. was the eldest son. From his early years he was proficient in the natural sciences and technical subjects, and dreamed of becoming a chemist. Conceding, however, wish his father, he spent years working in various shops of metallurgical plant, and from 1894 to 1896. comprehended metallurgy and mechanical engineering at the Technical University in Charlottenburg (now part of Berlin). After it, B. began to study chemistry at the University of Leipzig and in 1898. received his doctorate for a thesis on the problems of purely organic chemistry.
The following year, B. did work on the 'Baden aniline and soda factory' (BASF) in Ludwigshafen am Rhein, which was owned by a major chemical company specializing in the manufacture of dyes. Initially, under the leadership of Rudolf Knic he helped develop the process of production of synthetic indigo on a commercial scale. Address the problem of binding atmospheric nitrogen (formation of chemical compounds containing nitrogen, through the use of atmospheric nitrogen), he experimented with cyanide and metal nitrides. The level of technical training AB, his sound judgments and organizational skills impressed by the leadership of BASF in 1907. he was entrusted to create and lead an experimental laboratory, designed to test the effectiveness of the proposed company's method of production of barium cyanide.
. Great progress in the development of sequestration technology of atmospheric nitrogen has been achieved in 1909, when professor of chemistry at the Technical University of Karlsruhe, Fritz Haber synthesize ammonia from atmospheric nitrogen and hydrogen
. This achievement opens wide possibilities for industrial production because ammonia can serve as a basis for sodium nitrate, an important part of Explosives. In addition, when ammonia is absorbed by sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate is formed - a wonderful fertilizer. The method of Haber demanded not only an extremely high pressure and temperature, but also the use of two rare and expensive catalysts - osmium and uranium.
In 1909, Mr.. BASF has acquired a patent for Haber developed the process of synthesis and placed in front of B. the task of turning this way in the industrial cost-effective. To solve this gigantic task it was necessary to have a huge amount of clean and relatively inexpensive hydrogen gas, . cheap, . effective and available in sufficient quantity catalysts, . and equipment, . capable of withstanding both high pressure, . high temperature,
. B. and his staff managed to get the necessary amounts of hydrogen by separating it from the water gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, which is formed by passing water vapor over a hot charcoal). Then they began searching for inexpensive catalysts that can replace the proposed Haber expensive osmium and uranium. Finally, B. improved designs and construction equipment, able to withstand high pressures and temperatures necessary for the implementation of the proposed Haber process.
. The biggest difficulty, however, was the design catalyst column, which was to pass the reaction
. After several failed attempts B. came to the conclusion that at high pressure and temperature of hydrogen gas passes through the iron walls of the column, turning iron into brittle alloy, which eventually collapses. He decided to separate the effects of temperature and pressure, constructed a double-walled container in which the walls between left no ring-shaped space filled. Hydrogen diffused through the inner cylinder, but not through an external. Steelmakers BASF cooked soft, chrome-plated steel with low carbon content for the inner cylinder, and for the external - a solid carbon steel. While in the inner cylinder at a pressure of 200 atmospheres and a temperature of 500 б¦ C was the reaction between hydrogen and nitrogen into the space between the cylinders at a pressure of 200 atmospheres was fed a mixture of gaseous hydrogen and gaseous nitrogen. Thus, the inner wall was protected from sudden pressure changes, and the outer exposed to high pressure, but not high temperatures.
In 1913, Mr.. BASF has built in OPPA, near Ludwigshafen am Rhein, the first factory for the industrial production of synthetic ammonia. Here B. created a laboratory where research was carried out catalytic methods, verified the phase rule for salt fertilizers, were engaged in photochemistry and polymerization. He also organized the OPPA laboratory biological research, and in 1914. in Ludwigshafen - an experimental agricultural station. Appointed in 1919. plant manager BASF, B. began work on the method of inorganic synthesis of methanol.
. While methanol - the solvent is very volatile - it is used mainly for the production of formaldehyde, the source material for many organic compounds, especially polymers and fertilizers
. The formed as a byproduct in the processing of carbon methanol as reducing forest reserves became more. In 1923, Mr.. B. and his colleagues synthesized methanol, having carried out the reaction of carbon monoxide and hydrogen under high pressure in the presence of a catalyst. Shortly thereafter they found the optimal conditions for commercial production of methanol.
In 1925, Mr.. Friedrich Bergius BASF sold the patent right to use the developed process of hydrogenation of coal. It was a way of converting coal (which is characterized by relatively high hydrogen content) in the liquid fuel as a result of the interaction of gaseous hydrogen and coal at high temperature and pressure. Later that same year, when BASF and six other chemical companies have merged and formed Concern 'IG. Farben ', B. was appointed president of the new giant chemical association. Using the experience gained by the company's plants in the field of catalysis, hydrogen production and the creation of equipment that can withstand high pressure, B. invited its members to prove the technical feasibility of the transformation of coal into liquid fuel. This project, however, has never been implemented in the industry.
In 1931, Mr.. B. Bergius, and has been jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for his services on the introduction and development of high-pressure techniques in chemistry'. In his opening speech on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences KV. Palmayer generalize the methods developed by the two winners, and described some of the practical advantages of these methods. In particular, he emphasized that the synthesis of ammonia prevented the growth of the lack of fertilizers throughout the world, ensuring that the replacement of dwindling stocks of Chilean sodium nitrate. By 1931, Mr.. long-term importance of this work for the chemical industry became apparent. Apart from the fact that it contributed to the production of methanol, . urea and other chemicals, . She has had a profound influence on the development of the reactor and compressor, . application of controlling and stabilizing devices, . the use of catalysts,
. Perhaps even more important was the fact that B. encourage and support a purely research work on a variety of topics.
In 1902, Mr.. B. married to Elsa Shilbah. From this marriage the spouses have a son and daughter. Even in the home environment, B. enjoyed the science activities, such as collecting butterflies, beetles, plants and minerals. He spent many hours in his own observatory in Heidelberg, to provide continued financial support of the Astrophysical Observatory of Albert Einstein in Potsdam. In 1935. B. became chairman of the board of directors' IG. Farben ', and two years later - the successor to Max Planck as president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (now - Max Planck Society) and held these two posts simultaneously. B. died April 26, 1940, Mr.. Heidelberg.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, B. was awarded the Medal Liebig Germanskogo Chemical Society and the commemorative medal of Charles Lyuga Association of German Metallurgists. The scientists were awarded honorary degrees from technical universities in Karlsruhe, Munich and Darmstadt, and the University of Gaul

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