BROWN (Brown), Herbert C.( American organic chemist Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1979)
Comments for BROWN (Brown), Herbert C.
Biography BROWN (Brown), Herbert C.
genus. May 22, 1912 g.Amerikansky organic chemist Herbert Charles Brown, the second of four children and only son in the family, was born in London (England) spouses Pearl (Gorinshteyn) Bovarnik and Charles Bovarnika. Mother and Father B. were Ukrainian Jews who immigrated to London in 1908, 6 years later moved to Chicago to parents father B. Those had already settled in Chicago and changed his name in the English fashion, were Brown. The same surname and parents have B. The future scientist hevenskuyu school and graduated in 1930. inglvudskuyu secondary school in the southern part of Chicago. After Meanwhile in 1926. her father, having been ill, died, B. combine study with management of the family hardware store. Interrupting one, then the other odd jobs, he managed in 1935. graduate from Wright Junior College and get a partial scholarship to the University of Chicago, where a year later became a bachelor of science.
. While the University of Chicago was one of America's leading centers of study of chemistry, and in the number of mentors B
. included two such accomplished scholars as Maurice and Julius Karash Stiglitz. After graduating from the University B. wanted to go to work, but Stiglitz, persuaded him to choose a career research chemist, and to attend graduate school. At the University of Chicago B. studied with the famous chemist H.I. Schlesinger. In 1938. B. was awarded a doctoral degree.
Not finding a job in the industrial sphere. B., receiving a one-year scholarship (allocated to the research after receiving his doctorate. - Ed.), He first worked with Karashen, and then became an assistant researcher at the Schlesinger, where the number of trainers. In 1943, Mr.. He moved to Detroit and began working at Wayne (later Wayne State) University, first as an assistant professor, and 3 years later - Associate Professor. In 1947, Mr.. B. was appointed full professor of chemistry at Purdue University in West Lafayette (Indiana), where it remained until the end of his scientific activity. In 1959, Mr.. He was awarded the title Professor Emeritus, and in 1978. - Honorary Professor, retired. His academic responsibilities scientist combined with the work of a consultant in 'Exxon Corporation. "
B. made fundamental contributions to the physical chemistry of organic compounds and chemistry of organic synthesis, especially in terms of determining the chemical composition of the derivatives of boranes and scope of their practical application. In 1936, Mr.. He, in cooperation with Schlesinger investigated diborane - while extremely rare and expensive substance. In preparation for doctoral dissertation scientist studied the reaction of diborane with organic carbonyl compounds (such as aldehydes, ketones and esters, molecules of which contain double uglerodkislorodnuyu link). This work was carried out with the use of complex high-vacuum technology. In the process of research Used. found that diborane is an excellent reducing agent (gidrogenizatorom): the hydrolysis of carbonyl groups freely and fully restored to alcohols under very mild conditions. Despite the fact that method B. revealed certain advantages for organic chemists, its use was nevertheless significantly limited because of its high cost and the complexity, which required working with diboranami.
At the end of 1940. B. Schlesinger and offered to take part in the development of the Manhattan Project, which ultimately led to the creation of the atomic bomb. For isotopically pure uranium for atomic weapons was necessary to find a suitable volatile compounds of uranium for use in the process of gaseous diffusion. Because just synthesized Borohydrides aluminum and beryllium have been volatile, Schlesinger and B. used for the synthesis of diborane uranievogo borohydride, which has this property. However, the stumbling block was that the process of obtaining diborane was complicated and time consuming. The scientists decided to search for new ways to get boranes. Their search was crowned with success. Was found an inexpensive and quick way of obtaining diborane using lithium hydride or sodium, and later opened a new reducing agent - sodium borohydride. Meanwhile, the way of uranium hexafluoride in gazodiffuznom process was developed by other scientists.
Despite the fact that the work of Schlesinger and B. not made a great contribution to the project of creating the atomic bomb, it had a huge impact on organic chemistry, radically transforming the means of recovery - one of the two most important chemical processes. Reduction reactions, carried out with diboranom or sodium borohydride, opened new ways of synthesis of compounds that are of interest in scientific and technical terms. Subsequently, by carrying out research at Wayne University and Purdue University, B. received a number of new borohydrides and metal hydride which provided organic chemists full range of reducing agents, suitable for wide application in the light of varying specificity. This work also identified the fundamental directions of research in the field of physical organic chemistry. Thus, B. made an important contribution to the study of the relationship between molecular structure and reactivity, as well as in the study of steric effects (the mechanical interaction of parts of the reacted molecules) in the reactions of organic compounds.
. In 1955, Mr.
. B. found that the interaction of diborane with carbon-carbon double bonds leads to the formation organoboranov in a process known as hydroboration. Organoboranes in turn enter into a series of further reactions and. thus begins a series of new and better ways of synthesis. This reaction is now often used to convert olefins in alcohols or saturated compounds. Additional benefits include hydroboration smooth passage and selectivity of reactions, which often present an opportunity to obtain high-purity products, as well as compounds with a rare intramolecular structure. B. found that organoborapy can also serve as intermediate products for the creation of new carbon-carbon bonds in the reactions, which he jokingly called 'riveted and prostegivaniem' 'slices' of molecules. Job B. and his colleagues in the past 30 years has led to the transformation organoboranov in one of the most versatile groups of chemical intermediates in the arsenal of organic chemists involved in the synthesis. Organoboranes are also important technical application. For example, the synthesis of pheromones are used to reduce the yield by-products.
In 1979. B. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for the development of new methods for organic synthesis of complex boron-and phosphorus-containing compounds'. Along with him the prize was awarded Georg Wittig. In his Nobel lecture B. compared his study with the exploration of the newly opened continent. 'We quickly moved on this continent, is to examine the major mountain ranges, valleys, rivers, lakes and coast - said. - However, it is quite obvious, we have only the most general idea. It will take another generation of chemists to, settling this continent, use it for the benefit of mankind '.
In 1937, Mr.. B. married Sarah Bailey, with whom he studied at the University. Their son, Charles is also a chemist. B. - The identity of an active, creative activity. He has been working with a large group of young scientists, regularly publishes the results of their research.
. Among the numerous awards, . which awarded B., . Nichols medal of the American Chemical Society (1959), . National Medal 'For his scientific achievements' of the National Science Foundation (1969), . Charles Frederick Chandler Medal, Columbia University (1973), . Elliott Cresson Medal Franklinovskogo Institute (1978), . Christopher Ingold Medal of the British Society of Chemistry (1978) and the Priestley Medal of the American Chemical Society (1981),
. Scientist - a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Honorary Member of the British chemical company and a foreign member of the Indian National Academy of Sciences.