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WALL (Wallach), Otto

( German chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1910)

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Biography WALL (Wallach), Otto
March 27, 1847, Mr.. - 26 February 1931
German chemist Otto Wallach was born in Koenigsberg (now Kaliningrad), the son of a Prussian officer Gerhard Wallachia and Otilia (Tom) Wallach. Shortly after the birth of a boy his father was transferred to Stettin, and then, in 1855 - in Potsdam, where Otto studied at the Potsdam Gymnasium. For gymnasium schedule chemistry was given to a few hours, but in. remained seized of the matter at home with a textbook of chemistry and the most basic laboratory equipment. In school, he awoke to a deep interest in art history and literature.
After graduating in 1867, Mr.. Gymnasium,. enrolled in the University of Gottingen, where he began studying chemistry at the Friedrich Wohler. Classes begin at seven o'clock in the morning and ended at five o'clock, after which the students often continued to work by candlelight. Despite such a rigorous course of training, in. finished it in five semesters instead of relying eight in 1869. defended his doctoral thesis on the Status of isomers of toluene series.
Within a short time in. worked as an assistant to August von Hoffman at the University of Berlin. In 1870, Mr.. He became the assistant of the famous German chemist Friedrich August KekulцL von Stradonitz the University of Bonn. In the same year, during the Franco-Prussian War, he called for military service. After military service in. is a chemist working in the Berlin company 'Aktyuen gezelydaft fц+r aniline fabrikatsion' (which later became known as Agfa). He returned to the University of Bonn in 1872, Mr.. - First as assistant to the laboratory of organic chemistry, and later became a lecturer. In 1876, Mr.. V. was appointed extraordinary professor (associate professor), and in 1879. headed the Department of Pharmacology. This post has put a scientist faced with the need to study essential oils.
Essential oils are aromatic substances derived from plants. Despite the fact that they have been studied by many chemists, their chemical composition remained unclear. V. began with patience, so named because some of them were kept in turpentine. It was known that the percentage of all terpenes is the same, they often have the same atomic mass and the same boiling point. However, chemical reactions, in which they enter, the ability to refract light, and other properties to induce the belief that these substances are markedly different from each other.
. Terpenes at the time amounted to hundreds, which is significantly higher than that the actual number, which could form the 10 carbon atoms and 16 hydrogen atoms - as it was believed that constitute terpenes
. By 1887, Mr.. V. proved that there are actually only 8 of these substances. Further work enabled him to describe in detail the reaction of transformation of one suffering in another, as well as the reaction to obtain their chemical derivatives. On the basis of material collected by scientists have become clearer structure of the family of terpenes and their molecular mechanisms of transformation. V. terpenes classified as a special class of alicyclic compounds (molecules with an open circuit). His results have not only aroused interest in the field of chemical theory, but also had great practical significance for those chemical industries that produce essential oils and aromatic substances
In 1889, Mr.. V. took the chair at the University of GцTttingen, which was once headed Wohler, thus becoming, at the head of the University Institute of Chemical. At GцTttingen he studied the optical properties of terpenes and at the same time engaged in research of natural products such as alcohols, ketones and politerpeny.
In 1910,. V. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "in recognition of his achievements in the field of organic chemistry and chemical industries, as well as the fact that he first performed the work in the field of alicyclic compounds". Presenting. on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Oscar Montelius said: "alicyclic series acquired from the mid 80's. a value that serves as an equal, as compared with the other three major series in organic chemistry. V. introduced in a greater contribution than any other scholar-researcher '. In his Nobel lecture in. paid tribute to his predecessors in this area, . especially Jacob Berzelius and Friedrich Wohler, . described his work and pointed out some problems, . still waiting for their decision, . in particular the question of, . 'what kind of chemical processes in the body cause the formation of plant essential oils'.,
. After retiring in 1915
. retired from the University of Gottingen, IN. the next 20 years, continued his chemical studies, published articles, participated in scientific conferences. At one such conference, held in Gottingen in 1928, met him, Leopold Ruzicka. He was struck by 'clear blue eyes sparkling at the amazingly beautiful and wise person' old chemist. Later Ruzicka said: 'The highest ideal in. was not a theory, not a formula, but carefully and responsibly carried out an experiment '. V. never married. He died at Gottingen, February 26, 1931
Among numerous awards. were honorable mentions of Manchester and the University of Leipzig, . Brunswick Institute of Technology, . Germanic Imperial Order of the Eagle (1911), . Davy Medal, . awarded by the Royal Society of London (1912), . and Deutsch Royal Order of the Crown (1915),
. V. was a member of many scientific societies.


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