Wieland (Wieland), Henry( German chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1927)
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Biography Wieland (Wieland), Henry
June 4, 1877, Mr.. - August 5, 1957
German chemist Heinrich Otto Wieland was born in Pforzheim, in the family of the pharmacist Theodor Wieland and Eliza (Blom) Wieland. Receiving primary and secondary education in local schools, he studied chemistry at the universities of Munich, Berlin and Stuttgart. In 1901, Mr.. University of Munich, he was awarded a doctoral degree, he then worked there as a lecturer, and in 1909. became an associate professor. Four years later, in. was appointed professor of Technical University of Munich. During the First World War, while on vacation, a scientist from 1917 to 1918. worked at the Fritz Haber Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of Kaiser Wilhelm in Berlin, where he took part in the ongoing efforts of Germany to develop chemical weapons. After the war he returned to the Technical University of Munich, in his earlier post he occupied until 1921, after which for three years he worked at the University of Freiburg. Since 1924. V. again in the Technical University of Munich, but now in the position of Head of Department of Organic Chemistry and Laboratory Director Bayer (named after Adolf von Baeyer). This post he held until the resignation in 1950
There are observed among scholars tend to focus on more narrow areas of science,. made a significant contribution to the development of different areas of organic chemistry. He was also engaged in many issues not addressed by his predecessors.
First In. studied chemistry of organic nitrogen compounds, . especially the mechanism of adherence of oxides of nitrogen to carbon-carbon double bond and aromatic hydrocarbons nitrator, . then the sequence of reactions occurring and intermediates, . resulting in the synthesis of fulminate acid from ethanol, . nitric acid and mercury,
. Analysis of the color reaction of hydrazine has led scientists to the discovery of free radicals of nitrogen (high-level groups of atoms with unpaired electron). V. and his colleagues have published over 90 articles on studies of nitrogen compounds.
. In 1774, when the French chemist Antoine Lavoisier described the role of oxygen in the combustion reactions, chemists believed that this process is called 'activated' (highly active, unstable) oxygen
. Based on research conducted by his predecessors for decades, in. created the theory of dehydration based on the activation of hydrogen. He explained the oxidation of many organic and inorganic compounds as dehydrogenation (eg, removal of hydrogen atoms of the phosphor and formic acid or the formation of sulfuric acid from sulfur dioxide). V. together objects of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, demonstrating the process of dehydration in living cells (for example, the conversion of acetates to succinic acid in oxygen-depleted yeast cells).
. Another topic of research scientist, where he became interested in 1912
. and continued his whole life, chemistry concerns bile acids - substances found in the gall bladder and contribute to the assimilation of lipids. Using the classical methods of organic chemistry, deprived of opportunities to use modern technologies such research, as spectrometry, chromatography and X-ray analysis,. undertook what he later described as 'a long and incredibly exhausting crossing the barren desert structures'. Fact, . that cholic, . desoxycholic and lithocholic acid can be converted into holanovuyu acid, . pointed out, . these bile acids have the same carbon skeleton and differ only by the number associated hydroxyl (-OH) groups,
. Around the same time, Adolf Windaus transformed cholesterol holanovuyu acid, thus demonstrating the close structural relationship between bile acids and cholesterol. Then a group of scientists led in. take the next step - splitting of bile acids, which led to inconclusive results concerning the size of carbon rings. In 1932, Mr.. English chemist Otto Rosenheim and Harold King, with the help of X-ray crystallography showed that these substances are steroids (organic compounds with a structure consisting of four carbon acids). V. noted that, since the bile acids combine with fats and hydrocarbons from the formation of a colloidal solution in water, physiological function of bile acids is the transfer of food fats in the aquatic environment.
In 1927, Mr.. scientist was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for the study of bile acids and the structure of many related substances'. In his opening remarks on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences X.G. Sederbaum stressed the importance of the decision in. problem that Sederbaum called, 'without a doubt, the most difficult of all, what ever faced Organic Chemistry'. Noting that 'In. managed to get out of rich bile acids, which can be regarded as a raw material for bile acids ', Sederbaum compared this with similar discoveries made Windaus:' When Windaus ... received the same original substance, holanovuyu acid from cholesterol, it clearly indicates the close relationship between cholesterol and bile acids. "
In other works in. studied the chemistry of substances found in nature: morphine and strychnine, curare alkaloids and lobeline, poisonous tsiklopentidov - phalloidin and amanitin - available from Amanita phalloides, poison grebes and pigment-wing Butterflies (pterinov).
. In 1908, Mr.
. V. married Josephine Bartmann. They had three sons (one of them, Theodore, to determine the exact structure of phalloidin) and daughter, who married Theodore Linena. V. managed to achieve much of their lives. He was a man overflowing energy and extraordinary efficiency, in. also liked to draw and play music and often took part in home music performances. Died. 80 years in Starnberge (Germany).
Notorious for its encyclopedic knowledge of chemistry, a scientist for 20 years was the editor of 'Libigs annals der Chemie' ( "Liebig's Annalen der Chemie"). Among the many scientific societies, in which he was included: the Royal Society, the American National Academy of Sciences. American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Chemical Society of London, Romania, Japan, India and the Soviet Union, as well as the Academy of Sciences in Munich, GцTttingen, Heidelberg and Berlin. In 1955, Mr.. Germanic Chemical Society awarded in. Otto Hahn first prize for achievements in physics and chemistry. He was awarded honorary degrees from universities of Freiburg and Athens.