Virtanen (Virtanen), Artturi( Finnish biochemist Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1945)
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Biography Virtanen (Virtanen), Artturi
January 15, 1895, Mr.. - November 11, 1973
Finnish biochemist Artturi Ilmari Virtanen was born in Helsinki, in the family Seraphim (Izotalo) Virtanen and Virtanen Kaarlo. After graduating from the classical school in Viipuri (now Russia g. Vyborg), he enrolled at the University of Helsinki, where he studied chemistry, biology and physics, Yves 1916. received a Master of Science. Over the next year in. working in central industrial laboratory in Helsinki, and then returned to the university for his doctoral dissertation, which he defended in 1919
In. continued his studies as a graduate student in physical chemistry in Zurich (1920) and bacteriology - in Stockholm (1921). Since 1919. He also worked as a chemist in the laboratory of the Finnish cooperative cheese-making association 'Valio', and in 1921. became its director. By 1923, Mr.. academic interests have focused in the field of biochemistry, and 1923 ... 1924. He devoted the study of enzymology with Hans von Euler-Chelpin at Stockholm University.
. For some time, laboratory associations 'Valio' working hard to create better ways of growing feed for livestock, especially plants fix nitrogen
. Nitrogen compounds are essential for all living organisms. The main source of nitrogen is the atmosphere, but atmospheric nitrogen can not be used by most plants and whatever animals were, if it is not included in the compounds which assimilated by the organism. Among the plants that can fix nitrogen and form such compounds with nitrogen directly from the atmosphere, includes many members of the family of legumes such as peas, clover and soybean. These plants have the ability in the process of decay replenish nitrogen-poor soils. They also largely represented nitrogen-containing nutrients, especially amino acids ( 'building blocks' from which proteins are built), so they are excellent fodder for dairy cows and other livestock. Realizing the value of such plants,. in 1925. began to study taking place in these biochemical processes. Among the questions to be answered were questions about the nature, location and activity of bacteria, which, as expected, play a role in nitrogen fixation.
In. knew that when the green fodder such as clover and grass silage harvest, they quickly lose catastrophically nitrogen because of the natural decomposition of bacteria and these losses reduce the nutritional value of feed from 25 to 50 percent. Accordingly, lose their nutritional value, especially vitamins A and B12, milk from dairy cows that are fed these foods in winter. Reduced quality of winter milk and butter has been well known. After reviewing the earlier work, which dealt with the chemical aspects of the deterioration of the quality of silage and ways to store, in. found that they lack a clear, sound theoretical base. Moreover, were not properly identified and nutritional characteristics of forages.
By experimentation. proved that the deterioration in the quality of silage can be significantly slowed or even halted, if you add a feed hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. Moreover, by changing the acidity of silage scientist managed to control the chemical reactions that led to the destruction contained in the feed proteins and vitamins. As a result of the performed experiments were set maximum, minimum and optimum levels of acidity in the processing of silage. Biopsy tissue of cows, . fed silage treated in such a way, . showed, . what food animals does not lead to any harmful effects, . milk also receive a higher quality, . comparing favorably not only for its nutritional properties, . but taste,
. This method, called AIV-method of the initials of the scientist, was first applied in many European countries and - in somewhat altered form - in the United States.
In 1931, Mr.. V. was appointed director of biochemical research institute in Helsinki and at the same time he became a professor of biochemistry of the Finnish Institute of Technology. Continuing to investigate the fixation of nitrogen in plants, he discovered that the red pigment legemoglobin like hemoglobin and plays an important role in the transformation of nitrogen, carried out in the root outgrowths. In 40-ies. in his laboratory at the University of Helsinki, work on the study of biochemistry of more complex plants, which resulted in a refinement of many amino acids and their chemical structure.
Known in. brought he created AIV-method. In 1945, Mr.. scientist was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for his research and achievements in the field of agriculture and chemistry of nutrients, especially for the method of preservation of fodder'. 'I think I was lucky - he said in. in his Nobel lecture. - I not only worked in such an interesting field, but also something in it has reached '.
After receiving the Nobel Prize in. actively continued to research activities. Occupying the post of executive director of biochemical research institution, he in 1948. simultaneously became president of the State Academy of Sciences and Arts of Finland. In 1958, Mr.. V. begun to explore possibilities of obtaining milk from dairy cows contained in the non-protein diet. Based on data, . he received in the study of bacteria, . fix nitrogen, . Scientists have suggested, . that the digestive system of cows is quite capable of synthesizing amino acids found in milk from nitrogen, . contained in the urea and ammonium salts, . not from protein-rich forage,
. This hypothesis was confirmed experimentally in 1961
In 1920, Mr.. V. married Lily Moise. In the couple had two sons. Died scientist in the age of 78 in Helsinki.
As one of the leading Finnish scientists in. represented his country at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN. In addition to the Nobel Prize, he won many awards, including honorary degrees from the University of Lund, Paris, Hesse and Helsinki.