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Woodward (Woodward), RB

( American biochemist and Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1965)

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Biography Woodward (Woodward), RB
April 10, 1917, Mr.. - July 8, 1979
American biochemist Robert Burns Woodward was born in Boston (Massachusetts), the son of Margaret (Burns) Woodward and Arthur Chester Woodward. His father died a year after the birth of her son. As a child,. spent much time at work in a home chemistry lab. At age 16 he graduated from Quincy High School. Even then, an amazing knowledge of organic chemistry allocated in. students research colleges. When in 1933. He received a scholarship, he entered the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he allowed himself be a schedule. He was also given the opportunity to work in the laboratory on self-designed studies of hormones. In 1936, Mr.. V. earned a bachelor of science, and in 1937. - Doctorate.
During the summer semester 1937. V. involved in the University of Illinois, and then went to Harvard, becoming an assistant Elmer P. Kohler, Head of the Department of Organic Chemistry. He remained at Harvard until the end of his career, having risen from an assistant professor in 1944. to full professor in 1950, Mr.. (Associate Professor in. began in 1946). In 1953 and 1960. He was awarded honorary professorship.
Man, which later spoke of as 'the greatest specialist of his time in the field of synthetic and structural organic chemistry', in. made his first contribution to the chemistry, as a consultant 'Polaroid Corp.' during the Second World War. The war caused a shortage of quinine, a valuable anti-malarial drugs, which is also used in the manufacture of lenses. With standard equipment and readily available materials,. and his colleague, William E. Doering in 1944. first synthesized quinine after only 14 months of. It is characteristic that the method in. was to start with a simple molecule and, by adding or removing carbon atoms, form the basis of the desired product. Then he 'tied' side groups to complete the structure of the molecule necessary. In the case of quinine in the process used to create the 17 transformations of the carbon structure and a lot of reactions to reproduce the natural properties of quinine.
Three years later, in collaboration with the organic chemist K.G. In Schramm. created the protein analog, connecting links of amino acids in a long chain of. The resulting polypeptides, which were used in the manufacture of plastics and synthetic antibiotics, became a valuable tool to study the metabolism of proteins. In 1951, Mr.. V. headed the first research group, which proceeded to the synthesis of steroids. An example of their extremely complex structure can serve as cholesterol and cortisone. V. continued to carry out seemingly impossible synthesis, some of them, such as the synthesis of strychnine, still unable to repeat. Among the compounds that he got were chlorophyll, lanosterol, lysergic acid, reserpine, prostaglandin F2a, colchicine, and vitamin B12.
. Part of this work was carried out in Vudvordskom Research Institute in Basel (Switzerland), which was established in 1963
. 'Ciba Corporation' (now 'Ciba-Geuze Corporation'). The Institute was named in honor of the scientist, he was its director, combining this post with the work at Harvard University. Under his leadership, scientists and staff of the Institute have synthesized many compounds that have found application in industry. One of the most significant of these compounds was nefalosporin C, antibiotics such as penicillin, used against infectious diseases caused by bacteria. V. died without completing the work on the synthesis of the antibiotic erythromycin.
Although. is best known for his work on the synthesis, its contribution to organic chemistry is much broader and fundamental. When he began his scientific career, the principles of organic chemistry is already well established. Were known tetrahedral structure of carbon, the nature attached to it side chains and their reactivity. In the analysis of unknown substances lying classical methods, which took its origin in the XIX century. After the connection is decomposed into components and these components are identified, based on the reactions entered into by this substance, it is concluded that its structure.
In. revolutionized the field of application of methods of physical chemistry. He used the theory of electronic structure of molecules to analyze the reaction mechanism and prediction of the output of products, which is essential in the planning of organic synthesis. Scientific popularized the use of spectroscopy for more rapid and accurate clarification of the molecular structure. Rule, which establishes the relationship between the ultraviolet spectrum, the number and type of bonds between carbon atoms and side groups that bears his name. In collaboration with Roald Hoffman in. formulated based on the rules of quantum mechanics, conservation of orbital symmetry for concerted chemical reactions (when the formation of chemical bonds of atoms takes place during chemical reactions). This method allowed in. take advantage of natural conditions that contribute to the reaction, for just such a molecule, what he wanted.
In 1965, Mr.. V. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for his outstanding contribution to the art of organic synthesis'. In his opening speech on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Arne Fredga both joked about the rule in. in the field of organic chemistry: "It is sometimes said that organic synthesis is both an exact science and fine arts. Here is an indisputable master - Nature. But I would argue that the winner of the award this year, the doctor in. rightly takes second place '.
In 1938. V. married Irzhe Pullman. In the couple had two daughters. His second wife, Eudoxia Muller (the marriage was concluded in 1946), worked as a consultant in the 'Polaroid Corporation'. They had a son and a daughter. A brilliant and inspired lecturer, in. usually not used records or synopses. With Robert Robinson, he founded a journal of organic chemistry 'tetrahedron' ( 'Tetrahedron') and 'Notes "Tetrahedron"' ( 'Tetrahedron Letters'), was a member of the editorial boards. V. also a member of the Board of Governors Weizmann Research Institute in Israel. Heavy smoker, he liked to relax by playing football. Scientist died of a heart attack at age 62 at his home in Cambridge (Massachusetts).
In addition to the Nobel Prize in. was awarded the George Ledley, Harvard University (1955), . Davy Medal of the Royal Society of London (1959), . National Medal 'For his scientific achievements' of the National Science Foundation (1964), . Medal Willard Gibb of the American Chemical Society (1967), . Lavoisier Medal of the French Chemical Society (1968), . Prize Arthur K,
. Cope of the American Chemical Society (1973) and many other awards. He was a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a foreign member of the Royal Society of London, and professional societies of many other countries. V. were awarded honorary degrees from Yale and Harvard Universities, the University of Southern California, Chicago, Cambridge, Columbia and many other universities.

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