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GARDEN (Harden), Arthur

( English chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1929)

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Biography GARDEN (Harden), Arthur
October 2, 1865, Mr.. - June 17, 1940
English chemist Arthur Harden was born in Manchester and was the third of nine children and the only son of Albert Tayesa Gardena, businessman, and Elsa (nee McAllister) Garden. His parents were pious sectarians, raise their children in religious puritanical atmosphere, which condemned even celebrate Christmas. After completion of primary education in school 'Victoria Park' in Manchester, he joined in 1877. in Tattenholl College in Staffordshire, who graduated four years. Then went to Owens College at Manchester University and in 1885, excellent passing exams, received a bachelor's degree in chemistry.
The following year, Mr.. was awarded a scholarship, which he used to complete the training in Germany in 1887 ... 1888. by Otto Fischer, University of Erlangen. There he studied the properties of chemical compounds (nitrozonaftilamina), and for this work he was awarded a doctoral degree. In the same year, Mr.. a lecturer at the rate of chemistry at Manchester University, where he remained until 1897, when he was invited by a chemist in Dzhennerovsky (later Listerovsky) Institute of Preventive Medicine in London. Initially, he taught chemistry and microbiology, and then became interested in the history of science. However, after several years he was again fully immersed himself in research, especially in research fermentation of sugar.
. In the process of fermentation is makroenergeticheskoe compound such as sugar, in the absence of oxygen splits or to alcohol and carbon dioxide, or up to organic acid
. G. expressed particular interest in the fermentation initiated by certain bacteria, and since 1899. published several articles on this topic. Fermentation also occurs in the splitting of sugar by yeast, single-celled fungi. It was believed that only the intact and living cells may determine the fermentation process. However, Mr.. knew that the German chemist Eduard Buchner in 1896. showed that the liquid is separated from the yeast, ferment, although the liquid does not contain live yeast cells. Moreover, Buchner demonstrated that one component of the extract, an enzyme which he called Zymase, breaks down sugar molecules into fragments. The enzyme is a product of cellular activity and functions as a catalyst, ie. accelerates specific chemical reactions in the cell, without entering into these reactions.
Some scientists still believed that the fermentation is a result of the impact of the mysterious 'vital force' in the living cell, but by 1904,. for T. became evident that the fermentation - a collection of chemical processes. To confirm his hypothesis, he received medication Zymase and filter it under high pressure through a porous porcelain soaked gelatin. He discovered that the enzyme zymase consists of two components, one of which passes through a filter, and the other - no. G. also found that the fermentation stops when he removes some components from yeast extract. This was the first proof that one component of an enzyme requires the presence of a second for the effective functioning. G. left the name 'zymase' for one component and another component (or coenzyme) was called kozimazoy. Later he discovered that zymase is a protein, while kozimaza protein is not (non-protein substance of nature).
In 1905, Mr.. G. made its second fundamental discovery: the fermentation process requires phosphate, consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms. He noted that the rate of decomposition of sugar molecules and the formation of carbon dioxide and alcohol over time, slowly falls. However, when he added in a solution of phosphate, the activity of fermentation increased sharply. Based on these observations, G. concluded that phosphate molecules bind to sugar molecules, creating the conditions for the induction of enzymatic fermentation. Moreover, he discovered that phosphate, separated from the reaction products, resulting in a complex chain of transformations is still free.
Job T. the role of phosphate in the fermentation process has contributed to the study of the phenomenon, which was later called the intermediate metabolism, in the study of compounds formed during chemical reactions in living organism. In the process of fermentation, many of these intermediate compounds act like phosphorus, mainly engaging in the reaction, and then regenerate up to the moment when fully completed by a chemical process. Study D. fermentation of sugar (carbohydrates) provide a model follow experimenters studied the decay of plant carbohydrates and muscle man.
Understanding the importance and significance of this work has led to what Mr.. in 1906. was invited to direct biochemical Faculty Listerovskogo Institute. 5 years later he became an honorary professor of biochemistry, University of London, as both a director of the Institute Listerovskogo. In 1913, Mr.. G. began with M.V. Beiliss co-editor of 'biochemical journal' ( "Biochemical Journal"), in which he worked for 26 years. Except for the period from 1914 to 1918, when he was engaged in military research on the chemistry of two well-known water-soluble vitamins, D. all their time gave a scientific study of the process of fermentation.
In 1929, Mr.. G. jointly with Hans von Euler-Helpinom was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for the study of fermentation of sugar fermentation and enzymes'. In his speech at the presentation of a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences X.G. Sederbaum noted that both GM and the Euler-Chelpin expanded and refined the results of earlier works of Eduard Buchner. 'The interest of specialists to study the mechanisms of complex reactions of fermentation of sugar, - concluded Sederbaum - led to important conclusions about the main routes of carbohydrate metabolism of plants and animals'.
. The following year, after receiving the Nobel Prize G
. resigned from his post as director of Listerovskogo Institute and the next 10 years fully dedicated scientific work.
In 1900, Mr.. G. married Georgina Sydney Bridge, originally from Christchurch, New Zealand. Children they had no. As a result, progressed over several years of nervous disorders G. died June 17, 1940, Mr.. at his home in Bourne End (county Bekingemshir).
Being a very secretive man, Mr.. had a moderate sense of humor. According to Frederick Goulenda Hopkins, 'for T. as the experimenter was characterized by the accuracy of observation, clarity of thought, the ability to dispassionately analyze the results of the experiment and assess their significance '.
In 1926, Mr.. G. received a knighthood and, except for the Nobel Prize, was awarded the Davy Medal of the Royal Society of London (1935). He was awarded an honorary degree from the University of Manchester, Liverpool and Athens.

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GARDEN (Harden), Arthur, photo, biography
GARDEN (Harden), Arthur, photo, biography GARDEN (Harden), Arthur  English chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1929, photo, biography
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