Heyrovskö+ (Heyrovsky), Jaroslaw( Czechoslovakian chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1959)
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Biography Heyrovskö+ (Heyrovsky), Jaroslaw
December 20, 1890, Mr.. - March 27, 1967
Czechoslovak chemist Jaroslav Heyrovskö+ was born in Prague and was the fifth of six children of Leopold Heyrovskö+, professor of Roman law at Charles University in Prague, and Clara Heyrovskö+ (nee Ganlovoy). His father was an ardent Czech patriot, a friend of Tomas Masaryk, first president of Czechoslovakia. After graduating from elementary school Mr.. enrolled in the Prague school, where he showed great interest in physics and mathematics.
After studying at Charles University, which at that time his father was the rector, Mr.. transferred to University College in London, where he attended lectures of William Ramsay. In 1913, Mr.. He earned a bachelor of science, and remained at University College in the position of research assistant FJ. Donnan, successor to Ramsay. Under the leadership Donnan he began studies on electrochemistry of aluminum. When he visited his parents in Prague in 1914, the First World War, and D. forced to remain in Czechoslovakia. Called to the Austro-Hungarian army, he was discharged from military service due to ill health, and sent to a military hospital for the post of chemist and radiologist.
. Despite his military duties, he completed a thesis on the electrochemistry of aluminum, for which he received a Ph.D. at Charles University in 1918, shortly before the end of the war
. In 1919, Mr.. G. is an assistant professor of chemistry at the University of. Articles, which he published based on his dissertation during this time, allow the award to him in 1921. at University College, a doctorate in natural sciences. The following year he became an associate professor of chemistry and dean of the Faculty of Charles University.
In the early 20-ies r. developed a new method for analyzing chemical solutions. It is well known that any substance in solution, changes characteristic way (and, therefore, identified) by the electric current which passes through the solution. However, traditional electrodes were not suitable for precise measurements, as well as dissolved substances tend to bind to the surface of these electrodes and these layers distort the results obtained. In the apparatus G. role of the electrodes served drops of mercury falling from the tube into the reservoir. Each drop has a clean surface, allowing successful measurement and stress, and the magnitude of the current. G. able not only to conduct an accurate qualitative analysis, but samples of substances in microquantities.
All subsequent years of his scientific activity T. devoted to this method of analysis, which called polarography. Working with a colleague, Masutso Shikatoy it in 1924. constructed polarography, a device with automatic registration of results, which quickly and effectively determine the composition of the solution, not making it any changes, and leaving it unfit for further use. Two years later, Mr.. becomes the first professor of physical chemistry at the University, which in turn is the leading center of the polarographic studies. In 1926, Mr.. he is given a Rockefeller Fellowship to work at the University of Paris. In 1933. He lectured on polarography in several U.S. universities and published his first completed work on the application of this method.
After the German occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1939. all higher education institutions were closed and their faculties moved to Germany. Fortunately, the situation of Mr.. depended on certain high-ranking opponent of the Nazi regime, which supported his work during the years of occupation. At the end of the war Mr.. finished writing a textbook and began research on ostsillopolyarografii. In 1950, Mr.. He became director of the newly established Central Institute of polarography at the Charles University, which two years later in connection with the increase in staff was transformed into the Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences of polarography. In 1964, Mr.. Institute was renamed the Institute of polarography behalf I. Heyrovskö+.
'For the discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis' G. was awarded in 1959. Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The award was presented GA. Elanderom, a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. 'Almost all the chemical elements can be determined using the polarographic method, - said Elander. - And in organic chemistry it is equally useful for identifying the most diverse groups of compounds'. In his Nobel lecture Mr.. explained why he connected his life with a dropping mercury electrode. 'The physical condition of the fall, as well as chemical changes in the passage of current well known - he said - and the phenomena that occur during the fall of the mercury drop electrode, are reproduced with high accuracy. Processes on the electrode can be rapidly and accurately described mathematically. "
In 1926, Mr.. G. Korzhanovoy married Mary, daughter of the brewer. Their daughter Jitka became a biochemist; son Michael works at the institute that bears his father's name. A talented pianist, a lover of opera and sports enthusiast, Mr.. worked in the lab every day from 8 am to 7 pm, including weekends. After a serious illness in 1963. He resigned, but continued to actively participate in the affairs of the institute. He was known for its hospitality, lively humor, love of good food and wine. He was deeply revered for his scientific achievements. G. died in Prague on March 27, 1967
G. awarded the honorary titles of the University of Warsaw, Marseilles and Paris. He - a member of the Board of University College London, an honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Germanskoy Academy of Natural Scientists 'Leopoldina' and others. In 1951, Mr.. he was awarded the State Prize, and in 1955. He was awarded the Order of the Czechoslovak Republic. Was a foreign member of USSR Academy of Sciences.