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Diels (Diels), Otto

( German chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1950)

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Biography Diels (Diels), Otto
January 23, 1876, Mr.. - March 7, 1954
German chemist Otto Paul Hermann Diels was born in Hamburg and was the second of three sons of Hermann Diels, teachers and well-known philologist, and Diels Bertha (nee Dubiel). When Otto was two years, the family moved to Berlin, where his father was elected professor of classical philology at Berlin University. In six years, D. Yoahimshtalskuyu enrolled in school in Berlin. At the age of D. entered Berlin University to study chemistry. In 1900, Mr.. under the leadership of Emil Fischer, brilliantly defended his doctoral dissertation and became assistant to Fisher University Chemical Institute.
In 1904. D. discovered an unusual compound containing three atoms of carbon and two oxygen atoms, which he called nedokisyu carbon. In the same year he began to study the structure of poorly understood substances - cholesterol. Through dehydration (removal of hydrogen), he has received from cholesterol is one of the ketones - holesteron.
In 1904. D. becoming a lecturer, and in 1906. - Professor of Organic Chemistry. During this time he extend the scope of their interests in other fields of chemistry and in 1907. published a well written and well-known textbook 'Introduction to organic chemistry' ( 'Einfuhrungen in die organische Chemie'). In 1913, Mr.. He became the head of Department of Organic Chemistry, University.
After a year of Associate Professor of Chemistry at Queen's University Institute of Friedrich Wilhelm (now Humboldt University) D. returns to Berlin University as a full (real) Professor. In 1916, Mr.. he accepted the appointment to the post of professor of chemistry and director of the Chemical Institute of the University Christian Albrecht (later Keele University). Since 1925. he was rector of the university.
Assuming that the structural model of cholesterol, proposed by other researchers, is erroneous, D. again began to study this matter. After trying to use traditional methods, he discovered that selenium, when mixed with cholesterol dehydration occurs last, and with stirring and heating there is no degradation present in other methodologies. D. was the first researcher who applied for the dehydration of different selenium compounds, and this method opened in 1927, was subsequently applied to other chemists for polyunsaturated oils. Connection, . which received DA, . was the basic molecule of many natural compounds, . and soon it was used by other experimenters to explain the structure and chemical nature of cortisone, . sex hormones, . steroids and vitamins D.,
. In 1928, Mr.
. D. with one of his former student, Kurt Alder, published an article in which they first explained diene synthesis. This type of synthesis is observed when the diene (a molecule containing two double bonds between carbon atoms) is connected with a molecule called filodienom (literally - a loving diene), which has one double bond between carbon atoms. The product of such a connection - a six-membered cyclic molecule, called adduct. Although diene synthesis has already been detected by other chemists, this phenomenon has not been given a scientific explanation. Article D. Alder and described how they connected with the simultaneous rearrangement of carbon bonds cyclopentadiene (dien) with succinic anhydride (filodienom) to form a highly stable adduct (3, 6-endometilen-4-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride). Until that time, some organic reactions have been difficult to study because the temperature and used methods of analysis influence the results. D. Alder and noticed that many dienes distributed in nature and that the dienes and filodieny react readily at normal temperatures. From this observation they concluded that the diene synthesis can give chemists a new approach to study various types of organic reactions. In subsequent years diene synthesis has indeed become an indispensable tool for organic chemists, who used it in the synthesis of substances such as drugs, vitamins, hormones, steroids, synthetic rubbers and plastics.
Co D. with Alder continued until 1936. (Alder was adopted in the state of the plant 'IG. Farben 'in Leverkusen, Germany). The hardships and the devastation caused by the Second World War, hampered the further implementation of the D. their research. The bombing of the Anglo-American air force eventually destroyed not only the Chemical Institute and its library, but home D. Two of his sons were killed on the Eastern Front, and in 1944. He tendered his resignation, which was adopted in the next year. However, after the war at age 70, he returned to the institute, where he worked on its restoration until final retirement in 1948
D. and Alder in 1950, Mr.. were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for the discovery and development of diene synthesis'. In his speech at the presentation of the winners Arne Fredga, member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, described the chemistry of carbon compounds as 'something unconvincing, hardly explains and understood people'. 'Synthesis of D. and Alder, - said Fredga, - now has evolved as one of the most important working methods of organic chemistry. Using this method can be easily synthesized by a large number of compounds of complex structure, which is impossible or extremely difficult to obtain in any other way '. Illness prevented D. attend the awards ceremony. In his Nobel lecture, published in the next year, he raised the question of the importance of an aromatic base molecular structure of steroids.
D. married in 1909. Paulo Geyer and had three sons and two daughters. Reserved man with a good sense of humor, he was highly respected for the courage and originality of scientific ideas. In his youth, a fanatical climber, D. His hobbies are painting. He died in Kiel, March 7, 1954, shortly after his 78-anniversary.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, Dr.. was awarded a medal by Adolf von Baeyer Germanskogo Chemical Society (1930), received an honorary medical degree at the University of Kiel. He was a member of Academies of Sciences of GцTttingen, Halle and Munich.


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