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Carlo (Karle), Jerome

( The American chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1985)

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Biography Carlo (Karle), Jerome
genus. June 18, 1918
American organic chemist Melvin Calvin (Calvin) was born in St. Paul (Minnesota), the son of Rose and. (Hervits) Calvin and Elias Calvin. His parents once had immigrated to the U.S. from Russia. Even as a child to. showed great curiosity and love of learning, and for the eleventh class decided to become a chemist. The family moved to Detroit (Michigan), where K. studied at a local high school. Teacher of Physics to. expressed concern that 'it will never become a disciple of scientists': he was too hastily made conclusions. But K., winning a scholarship to the Michigan College of Mining and Technology, in 1931. earn a BA in Natural Sciences. Four years later, for a thesis on the subject of the electron affinity of iodine and bromine University of Minnesota awarded him a doctorate in chemistry.
Support for the Rockefeller Foundation allowed to. post-doctoral fellow to conduct research in England, at Manchester University under the guidance of Professor of Physical Chemistry, Michael Polanyi, the father of John W. Polanyi. Here K. studied the paramagnetic conversion of hydrogen and catalytic activity of metalloporphyrins - complex organic molecules containing metal atoms, which are derivatives of hemoglobin and chlorophyll. Back in 1937. in the United States, to. was appointed professor of chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, where studied electronic nature of colored organic compounds under the guidance of a chemist Gilbert H. Lewis.
During the Second World War to. from 1941 to 1944. worked in the Research Council of National Defense, and in 1944 ... 1945. participated in the Manhattan Project. During this period, scientists have developed a method for obtaining pure oxygen from the atmosphere for its application in industrial production, such as in welding in those places where it is impossible to get oxygen.
In 1945, Mr.. K. returned to Berkeley associate professor, and two years later became a full professor. In 1946, Mr.. He was appointed head of bioorganic chemistry in the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, and held that position until 1980. His research interests lie in the field of photosynthesis - a complex process by which green plants use the energy of sunlight, producing oxygen and carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. Despite the fact that the conditions necessary for photosynthesis, as well as its end products have been known since their discovery in 1772. Joseph Priestley, the intermediate reactions that take place during this process remained unknown.
Available To. There were two new analytical method. The first consisted in the application of carbon-14 radioactive isotope of carbon, which, being assimilated by plants, could be easily found in organic compounds. K. put carbon dioxide containing carbon-14 in a round container made of thin glass (called lollipop because of its shape), which was filled with green algae Chlorella pirenoidosa, in the suspended state. The vessel was illuminated, so the algae and tracers of carbon dioxide interact, to form compounds involved in photosynthesis.
To identify the tracer to. used a different method - paper chromatography. With this method, developed by Archer Martin and Richard Singh, the separation of components in the mixture is due to the fact that they are different solvents move along the strip of filter paper. Each component forms a spot on the appropriate location of the strip, which then can be compared with the distribution of the spots left by the known chemical agents. To install the patches containing the labeled carbon atoms, chromatography is used along with X-ray film, which darkens in the presence of any radioactive. 'Unfortunately, in this paper, as a rule, not imprinted title compounds - later recalled, K., - and our initial slog for 10 years was to drive at these carefully darkened place to film. "
. Through this work to
. and his assistants set, . that carbon dioxide initially reacts with Diphosphates Ribulose (compound, . molecule of which contains 5 carbon atoms) with the formation of phosphoglyceric acid, . is in the process of a series of reactions is transformed into fructose-6-phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate,
. Stage in the transformation of carbon dioxide into carbohydrates, called Calvin cycle, are carried out in chloroplasts - highly organized intracellular organelles in plant cells. Calvin Cycle, . which consists of 'dark' reactions of photosynthesis, . implemented through such high-energy compounds, . as adenosine triphosphoric acid and reduced phosphate-nicotine-amidadenin-dinucleotide, . generated in the 'light' reactions, . during which the light is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules,
. With the help of radioactive isotopes to. also traced the path of oxygen in the reactions of photosynthesis.
In 1961. K. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for the study of assimilation of carbon dioxide by plants'. Although K. received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, . his work is the interaction of different disciplines in the approach to chemistry, . Biology and Physics, . , and he stressed the importance of this aspect in his Nobel lecture: 'Chemical biodynamics, . means joining the many scientific disciplines, . still play a role in solving this problem [the problem, . explains the mechanism of participation of chlorophyll in the transformation of light energy] as, . in its time, it served to clarify the carbon cycle,
. One can expect that it will occupy an increasingly important place in understanding the dynamics of living organisms at the molecular level '.
In 1963, Mr.. K. was appointed Professor of Molecular Biology, University of California at Berkeley, and after 8 years - Professor of Chemistry. From 1960 to 1980. He worked as head of the Laboratory of Chemical biodynamics, which conducted research on topics such as photosynthesis and the conversion of solar energy, radiation chemistry, chemistry of the brain, the molecular basis of knowledge and the origin of life on Earth. With the help of the cyclotron to. irradiated atoms of carbon dioxide and hydrogen are converted into molecules of amino acids and adenine, the latter is part of one of the nucleic acids. Finding tracers of organic matter in meteorites, he suggested the possibility of the existence of life elsewhere in the solar system.
. The scientist takes part in many national and international committees that deal with the peaceful uses of atomic energy, molecular biopsy, science policy and national politics, as well as biokosmonavtikoy
. He worked as a consultant at the National Aeronautics and use of outer space.
In 1942, Mr.. K. married Marie Genevieve Zhemtegaard, employee patronage organization. In the couple's two daughters and a son. K. - Holds numerous honorary degrees. He was awarded the Davy Medal of the Royal Society of London (1964), Priestley Medal of the American Chemical Society (1978), Gold Medal of the American Institute of Chemists (1978) and premium Ouespera American Chemical Society (1981). K. - Member of the Royal Society of London, the Netherlands Academy of Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, the American National Academy of Sciences and the American Chemical Society (of which he was president in 1971).

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Carlo (Karle), Jerome, photo, biography
Carlo (Karle), Jerome, photo, biography Carlo (Karle), Jerome  The American chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1985, photo, biography
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