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CARRERA (Karrer), Paul

( Swiss chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1937)

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Biography CARRERA (Karrer), Paul
April 21, 1889, Mr.. - June 18, 1971
Swiss chemist Paul Karrer was born in Moscow, in Russia, where his father, after whom he was named Paul, worked as a dentist. When the boy was three years old, the family returned home to Switzerland and lived for some time in Zurich, before settling in the district Vildegg canton of Aargau. K. attended elementary school in nearby Morikene, high school - in Lenzburg, and high school - in Aarau. Serious interest in science, he found when he was in high school.
Entering in 1908. University of Zurich, K. studied chemistry at the Alfred Werner. In 1911, Mr.. future scientist received his doctorate for a thesis on complex compounds of cobalt and became assistant to Werner Chemical Institute of the University. The first scientific paper K. dedicated to organic arsenic, has made such a deep impression on Paul Ehrlich that he was in 1912. proposed to. become his assistant at the Research Institute of Chemical and therapeutic in Frankfurt (Germany).
Since the beginning of the First World War in 1914. K. was forced to return to Switzerland, T. to. was called the Swiss Army as an artillery officer, but in 1915, after the death of Ehrlich returned to Frank-Furth-on-Main, to continue research in the field of chemistry in chemical-therapeutic institute. Over the next three years to. studied the chemistry of plant products, and then was appointed Associate Professor of Organic Chemistry, University of Zurich. In December 1919. K. Werner's successor at the post of Professor of Chemistry and Director of the Chemical Institute. Here he conducted research on sugars, amino acids and proteins. The researchers were particularly interested in the stereochemistry (ie. spatial arrangement of atoms in molecules) of these and other organic substances.
In 1927, Mr.. K. turned to the study of anthocyanins - a group of pigments, which are the main cause of red and blue coloration of flowers plants. Richard Vilshtetter, who worked at the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, has already identified these compounds and investigated their molecular structure. K. also investigated the composition of anthocyanins. The following year he began studying krotsina, yellow pigment, which occurs in plants such as crocus and gardenia, and in 1930. determined the structure of beta-carotene, a component of carrots and other plants that had recently been established by Richard Kuhn. K

. Ascertaining that carotene turns in organism in vitamin A, K. allocated this vitamin from fat fish liver and by 1931 g. determined not only by its composition but also the molecular structure. He found, . that vitamin A is composed of 20 carbon atoms, . 30 atoms of hydrogen and 1 oxygen atom, . that together they form a closed six-membered ring, . the two ends of which are attached 3 methyl group, . and the third - a long zigzag chain,
. This configuration is a half molecule of beta-carotene with attached thereto a water molecule. Having made this discovery, K. became the first scientist who described the molecular structure of the vitamin.
In the early 30-ies. K., relying on the knowledge of organic pigments, continued study of vitamins. Of the more than 100 tons of whey he received a tiny amount of yellow, water-soluble, nitrogen-containing pigment called lactochrome, which later became known as riboflavin, or vitamin B2. Through chemical analysis to. found his formula and molecular structure, and in 1935. synthesized the substance.
In 1937, Mr.. scientist was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for the study of carotenoids and flavins, as well as for the study of vitamins A and B2. He shared the prize with British chemist Walter H. Haworth. In his Nobel lecture to. stressed that only a few years with the help of new analytical techniques was the discovery of approximately 40 carotenoids. He reminded his audience that, . that 'passed almost 10 years since then, . where many research scientists doubted the material specificity of vitamins and were of the opinion, . that the cause of the observed features of the impact of vitamins ..,
. serves as a special state of matter '. In conclusion, K. said: 'The chemical aspect of the problem of vitamin essentially solved. Problem physiology ... explain the interference of these agents in the processes of the cells'.
A year after receiving the Nobel Prize to. synthesize vitamin E, and for this success quickly followed by another - the selection in a pure form of vitamin K. Then K. began studying nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide (NAD) - Enzyme substances that regulate the exchange of hydrogen between molecules inside the cell and thus creates the intracellular energy. In 1942, Mr.. scientists have determined the structure of this substance. Later, in 40-ies., He returned to the study of carotenes and 1950 g. completed the synthesis of all these compounds. At the same time, he conducted research curare, a natural poison derived which has since used in surgery as a means to relax the muscles.
In 1950 ... 1953. K. was rector of the University of Zurich. He continued to actively engage in scientific activities and, following the resignation in 1959
In 1914, Mr.. K. married Helene Frolish, whose father was director of the psychiatric clinic in Kenigsfeldene. In the couple had three sons, one of whom died in infancy. Extremely meticulous researcher, K. deep respect for its kindness and modesty. Despite the fact that he became a wealthy man, he did not have her own car, and every day he went to work by bus. K. died in Zurich, June 18, 1971, Mr.. after a short illness.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, K. were presented to the Foundation Marcel Benoist Prize (1923) and Stanislao Cannizzaro prize of the Italian National Academy of Sciences (1935), as well as many other awards. He was a member of scientific societies on three continents, . including the Royal Society, . Academy of Sciences in Paris, . National Academy of Sciences of Italy and the U.S., . owner of honorary degrees from universities in Paris, . London, . Zurich, . Basel, . Strasbourg, . Breslau, . Brussels, . Turin and Madrid.,

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CARRERA (Karrer), Paul, photo, biography
CARRERA (Karrer), Paul, photo, biography CARRERA (Karrer), Paul  Swiss chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1937, photo, biography
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