Lee (Lee), Ian( Sino-American chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1986)
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Biography Lee (Lee), Ian
genus. November 29, 1936
Sino-American chemist Ian Lee (Yuan Tszeli) was born in Tsinshuye, Taiwan, the family of the artist and painting teacher Li Tszevan and elementary school teacher Pei Tsai. The ancestors of his parents migrated to Taiwan from mainland China in the XVI century. During the Second World War, when the Japanese occupied Taiwan, L. had to interrupt their schooling, t. to. entire population Tsinshuyya moved to the mountains: Allied planes bombed the city every day. After the war, L. graduated from the start and in 1955. high school, where not only a great student, but also played in a brass band. As one of the best graduates tsinshuyskoy high school, he enrolled in the Taiwan State University without entrance examination.
. As he later recalled L., . choice of his future profession largely determined acquaintance with the biography of Marie Curie: 'Wonderful life of this amazing man, . her devotion to science, . her dedication, . her idealism, . Finally, . led me to the decision to become a scientist ',
. By the end of the first year of study A. knew that would be a chemist. Lack of funds and equipment in the university offset the prevailing atmosphere in him freedom and creativity. Professors have been committed, and students were united the spirit of fraternity. In 1959, Mr.. L. earn a BA in Natural Sciences. This degree was awarded for his work on the separation of the elements strontium and barium by electrophoresis on paper - the directed motion of particles, . are in liquid or gaseous phase in suspension, . under the influence of external electric field.,
. After the Taiwan State University A
. remained there in graduate school and in 1961. received a master's degree for the study of natural radioisotopes (radioactive isotopes or unique elements) in hokutalite - mineral, found in sedimentary rocks of Hot Springs. Working as an assistant researcher at the W. H. Wong, he applied the method of X-ray crystallography to determine the molecular structure of compounds organolantanidnyh tritsiklopentadienilsmariya.
In 1962. L. enrolled in the University of California at Berkeley to continue his postgraduate course. It was believed that he was working at Dudley P. Hershbaha, but L. chose to conduct research under the guidance of Bruce X. Meyhana. In LA, who studied hemiionizatsionnye processes involving electronically excited molecules of alkali, there was particular interest in ion-molecule reactions and the dynamics of molecular scattering. In 1965, Mr.. scientist received his doctorate and stayed to work in the laboratory Meyhana as a fellow for another year and a half, . improving their skills in the design and construction of a powerful and complex apparatus for measuring the scattering of atoms and molecules,
. moved to Harvard University and conducted successful experiments on the dynamics of reactions between neutral atoms and molecules using molecular beam skew. Since this method at the time depended on the device, called surface ionization detector, it was limited to the study of systems containing molecules of alkali. L. entered the group Hershbaha in 1967. and began designing a new, highly complex apparatus that allows to extend the study of scattering. In carrying out this work, L. is helped by his previous experience to create a device for measuring the ion-molecule scattering. Inspired by the support Hershbaha, L. succeeded in overcoming many technical difficulties with the original creative innovations. This applies particularly to improve his method of pumping and application of the three stages of the pump to create a rotating excess of high detector. This detector was a mass spectrometer, which to trace the movement of various ions in different directions and, thus, separated and identified them using magnetic and electric fields. The device was made for 10 months, and now with the help of a scientist was able to conduct the first study of the exchange reaction between the halogen atoms (chlorine and bromine). Restriction analysis of objects alkali has been eliminated. The new device represented the first truly successful universal apparatus for the crossing of molecular beams. Several orders of magnitude more sensitive than his predecessors, he dramatically upgraded the study of the dynamics of reactions using molecular beams and the crossing has become absolutely necessary for chemical research.
. Since the XIX century. Even before the Hershbah and L
. succeeded in carrying out experiments with skew molecular beams, understanding the mechanism of chemical reactions proceeded very slowly. Launched at the beginning of XX century. quantum theory allowed scientists to clarify the atomic and molecular structure, as well as to find an explanation for many observed features of the chemical 'behavior'. However, much work was still not understood, and the activities of chemists are still confined primarily to the fact that they mixed the substance in different conditions and calculated the reaction products. Theoretical models were mainly static. Clusters of interacting molecules were considered as small balls, occupying the same volume, hitting each other and from time to time, merging, resulting in and new education. Information was mainly statistical in nature: the available information related to the average values rather than specific cases. Using the method of mating the molecular beam fluxes of molecules of different species were sent to the region of intersection, where the reaction takes place. Owing to the original experimenters detectors are now able to analyze the speed, direction and energy of the reaction products on the basis of which it is concluded on the reaction mechanisms and dynamics of collisions between individual molecules. This method provides a unique, . previously unattainable, . deep and detailed understanding of the process, . such as the role of angular momentum in the reactions and the distribution of energy liberated by chemical means between flight speed and the internal vibrations of the reaction products.,
. In 1968
. L. became an assistant professor of chemistry at the University of Chicago in 1971 - Associate Professor, and in 1973. - Full professor. In 1974. scientist returned to the University of California for the post of professor of chemistry and head of research at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Headed L. Laboratory quickly became famous for his very extraordinary works in the field of physical chemistry and chemical physics. A study L. study of reactions between oxygen and hydrocarbon molecules as large as benzene and toluene, laid the foundation for further work in the field of combustion chemistry. A creative imagination. told him the way to the connection of chemistry molecular beams with laser technology to solve many chemical problems, such as those associated with the mechanism of triple dissociation of glyoxal.
In 1986. L. with Hershbahom and John H. Polanyi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for their contribution to the development of studies of the dynamics of elementary chemical processes'. At the award ceremony celebrated the contribution of L. in the application of the method of mating the molecular beam to a relatively large molecules.
In 1963, Mr.. L. married Bernice Chinle By, which had known at school. In the couple's two sons and a daughter. In 1974. L. received American citizenship. L. known as a modest person and is deeply devoted to science. The spirit of creativity, prevails in his lab, there attracts many young talented scientists from around the world.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, A. has been awarded many prizes and awards. Among them are memorable Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award in Physics of the Office of Energy Research and Development U.S. (1981), the honorary title of lecturer named Harrison E. Hove (1983) and Peter Debye Award in Physical Chemistry (1986) American Chemical Society and the National Medal 'For his scientific achievements' of the National Science Foundation (1986). Scientist is an honorary doctorate by the University of Waterloo in Canada.