MARTIN (Martin), Archer( English biochemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1952)
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Biography MARTIN (Martin), Archer
genus. March 1, 1910
English biochemist Archer John Porter Martin was born in London. He was the youngest of four children and only son in the family nurse Lillian Kate (Brown) and physician William Archer Porter Martin. In 19 years M. enrolled at Cambridge University, receiving a scholarship that allowed him to buy specialty chemical engineer. However, after getting acquainted with biologist Dzh.B.S. Haldane M. became interested in biology and changing the direction of his scientific studies, received in 1932. Bachelor's degree in biochemistry, and in 1936. - Doctorate.
While a student at Cambridge University, M. worked in 'Dunn New trishnl laboratri' (laboratory nutrient companies 'Dunn') above the division and allocation of vitamins. Through this work he gained considerable experience in the separation of closely related chemical components using such methods, . as fractional distillation, . solvent extraction, . and other similar technologies, . associated with the distribution of components between two phases,
. The allocation method of counterflow mixture to be divided again and again dissolved in two immiscible solvents, which, passing each other, move in opposite directions. Since the components of the mixture have different means of solvents, they eventually split into two streams. When chromatographic method for single phase passes through another, stationary solid phase, which has a special affinity with the substance. Mixtures are separated into their component parts, depending on which of the analytes strongly retain certain phase. As in the case when subjected to the analysis of colored substances, the individual bands can be seen, this technique called chromatography. Colorless same substances are detected by ultraviolet light or chemical indicators, which give color reaction with the components of the mixture.
In 1906, Mr.. Russian botanist Mikhail Color has developed a technology, called adsorption, or by column, chromatography, according to which complex mixtures are passed through a long glass tube filled with carefully powdered substances. Speed-up of this mixture on top of the tube to the bottom depends on the attraction of molecules and the filler on the speed of transmission of the solvent. Despite the fact that this method was suitable for the separation of plant pigments, it was limited to a choice of filling materials. While still a schoolboy, M. constructed a column for fractional distillation of cans soldered together out of coffee in his home located in the basement laboratory. Later, Charles Martin, supervisor of Moscow, invited him to work in collaboration with Cambridge University graduate Richard Singh on the separation of amino acids that constitute the basis of protein molecules. Attempts to create devices for the countercurrent extraction to the analysis of these components were not successful because not achieved a satisfactory mixture moving towards each other suitable solvents.
M. and Singh have applied the principle of countercurrent distillation to column chromatography. With this method, a column of silica gel which holds water very well serve as the stationary phase, chloroform is used for mobile phase, and is an indicator metiloranzh. Analysis of the separation of amino acids by reaction with ninhydrin (crystalline oxidizer) and comparison of individual bands with similar data for pure compounds allowed to determine the composition of the mixture of amino acids. This analytical approach has been called partition chromatography, . because, . though it uses a technology called chromatography, . it also depends on the chemical distribution of solute between two solvents, . used in the column,
. Media used for packing columns, is inert and serves only to hold one of the streams. Unlike adsorption chromatography distribution chromatography enhanced the selection of solvents and packed materials.
In 1938. M. He was appointed a biochemist in the laboratory of the Research Association of the wool industry, where he later went to work and Singh. Continuing to cooperate, the two scientists have discovered that cellulose is a good water-holding environment for column chromatography. This discovery led them to develop in 1944. method of paper chromatography, which is used as a carrier filter paper. In accordance with this method, a drop subjected to analysis of the mixture is placed on one end of the strip of filter paper, which is then put into the hole in the glass cylinder containing an organic solvent saturated with water. Paper links the water, while other substances are moved along the paper under the action of capillary forces. Amino acids are more soluble in the organic phase, move together with the organic solvent, and those substances which are more soluble in the aqueous phase, remain closer to the starting point. After the paper is removed and dried, it can 'show' chemical indicator to see the location of each component, whose migration is a characteristic constant for each system solvent.
. Two-dimensional paper chromatography (chromatography occurs sequentially in two directions at a right angle in different solvent systems) also provides further division and allows the analysis of complex mixtures without the high cost and effort,
. Paper chromatography was quickly put into service in many areas of chemistry and led to important discoveries regarding the structure of proteins, antibiotics, vaccines, polysaccharides, and rare earth elements.
In 1946, Mr.. M. became the head of the department of biochemical studies 'Boots pyuar Drug Company' in Nottingham. Over the next two years he studied the partition chromatography of fatty acids, . working in the Medical Research Council Listerovskogo Institute in London, . then was appointed biochemist and head of the Department of Physical Chemistry, National Institute for Medical Research in Mill Hill (London).,
. In 1952, Mr.
. M. Shingu and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for the discovery of the method of partition chromatography ". In his opening speech on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Arne Tiselius said: 'Open your method of partition chromatography gave science a new tool, . which has already proved its usefulness in carrying out the huge amount of important scientific research,
. It provided an opportunity for researchers in the field of chemistry, biology and medicine not only to begin to resolve, but also successfully resolve the problems previously seemed hopelessly confused '.
In 1953, Mr.. M. with E.T. James developed a method of gas-liquid chromatography. With this method, inert gas such as argon, helium or nitrogen, serves as a mobile phase, which flows over inert solid material impregnated with nonvolatile liquid (silicone oil or alcohols with high molecular weight). This method proved particularly useful for the characterization of fatty acid and steroid mixtures, available in quantity, measured in micrograms.
From 1959 to 1970. M. was the director of 'Ebbotsbari laboratriz, Limited', then within three years of a consultant 'Wellcome Foundation, Limited', and then joined the Medical Research Council as a chemistry professor the University of Sussex.
In 1943, Mr.. M. married teacher Judith Beydzhnal. In the couple's three daughters and two sons. As a young scholar with pleasure in a mountaineering, gliding and jiu-jitsu.
Numerous awards M. include: Berzelius Medal of the Swedish Medical Society (1951), John Scott Award, awarded to Mr.. Philadelphia (1958), Medal of John Price Uezterilla (1959) and the Medal of the Franklin Institute Franklinskogo (1959), the Japanese government's Order of the Rising Sun (1972) and Medal Randolph Major University of Connecticut (1979). He is a member of the Royal London, as well as many other scientific societies.