Ruzicka (Ruzicka), Leopold( Swiss chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1939)
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Biography Ruzicka (Ruzicka), Leopold
September 13, 1887, Mr.. - September 26, 1976
Swiss chemist Leopold Stefan Ruzicka, the eldest of two sons, Cooper Stzhepana Ruzicka and Amelia (North) Ruzicka, was born in Austria-Hungary, in Vukovar (now the city is located on the territory of Yugoslavia). In 1891, after the death of his father, P. mother and brother moved in with relatives in Osijek. Here, the future scientist graduated from elementary school and gymnasium.
In 1906, Mr.. R. enrolled at the Technical University in Karlsruhe, Germany. He dreamed of a career in the newly built factory in Osijek for the production of refined sugar, but would prefer to receive education in Germany. In the universities of the Austro-Hungarian Empire was restless: they shook the endless echo of the student uprisings of nationalist fever that had gripped the Balkan States. In addition to the technical universities was easier to do: there was no need to take entrance exams. Completing higher education in record time - just two years, P. under the leadership of Hermann Staudinger began preparing his doctoral dissertation, and in 1910, Mr.. received an engineering diploma at the same time for work on the study of the kinetic ability keteni and his doctorate for his thesis 'Fenilmetilketen' ( 'Phenye Methyl Ketene') and immediately began working as an assistant to Staudinger.
In 1912, Mr.. Staudinger was appointed director of the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, P. followed him. During the next four years, he helped Staudinger in research chemistry of natural insecticides produced by the plant Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium. This work ultimately contributed to the development of the industrial production of synthetic pesticides. R. interested in the chemistry of natural substances and in 1916. Staudinger announced its decision to do independent research, for which he has deprived P. their support.
In 1917, Mr.. R. became a Swiss citizen. In the same year, Germany firm to produce the spirits 'Haarman and Rey-measures' granted him a loan to develop a method of synthesizing Irons, aromatic substance with a smell of violets. Around the same time, he was appointed lecturer at the Federal Institute of Technology, which was disadvantageous to the material point of view, but enables young scientists access to the chemical laboratory of the institute.
From 1918 to 1921. R. conducts research commissioned by the Swiss chemical firms 'Gesselshaft Hamish fц+r Industrie' ( 'Ciba AG'), and in 1920,. became a lecturer of chemistry at Zurich University. Despite the fact that in 1923. Federal Institute of Technology professor chose it, P. still had not received there salary. Therefore, in 1926, Mr.. He began working in the laboratories of the Geneva perfume factory.
Over the years, P. became known through research terpenes - organic compounds that are found in oils available from plant. He also studied ketones and many other substances. In 1926, Mr.. R. was elected Professor of Organic Chemistry, Utrecht University. This position he held until 1929, after which he returned to Zurich as Director of the Federal Institute of Technology, becoming the successor of Richard Kuhn.
Return P. Zurich partly explained by the attractive opportunities offered by the thriving Swiss chemical industry. In 30-ies. He persuaded 'Ciba AG' make significant financial donations to the Federal Institute, allowing him to expand the teaching staff, to leave the institute greater number of graduates and to provide more funds for scientific work. R. and his colleagues set themselves the task quite prestigious. They continued to explore the structure of complex terpenes and other hydrocarbons with large rings. By 1934, Mr.. they are partly synthesized male hormones - testosterone and androsterone, and next year R. determined the molecular structure of testosterone.
In 1939, Mr.. R. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for his work on polymethylene and higher terpenes'. He shared the prize with Adolf Butenandt, one of its main rivals in the chemistry of sex hormones. Yet the World War made it impossible to travel to Stockholm, and P. received the prize from the hands of the Swedish ambassador at a special ceremony which took place in 1940. the Federal Institute of Technology. Scientist was able to read his Nobel lecture in Stockholm, only 5 years later.
Despite the fact that the earlier P. was fairly apolitical man, the policies pursued by Nazi Germany, and expand the frontiers of the Second World War, it was deeply disturbing. During the war he helped several Jewish scientists to flee from Nazi-occupied Europe, while others provide shelter. R. actively assisted the Yugoslav resistance movement, not only through charitable organizations that were in Switzerland. He founded the Swiss-Yugoslav Society to help victims of war, and care of them manifested both during hostilities and after.
In the postwar years, P. devoted much time collecting art, especially preferring the works of Dutch and Flemish masters of the XVII century. Later, he donated his collection of Zurich Art Museum. Strong color blindness (especially bad he could distinguish red) did not interfere with P. enthusiastically engage in color photography.
After retiring in 1957,. retired from the Federal Institute of Technology, P. consultant continued to work in a number of Swiss chemical companies, and did everything possible to strengthen the links between science and production. In retirement he became a passionate gardener, particularly fond of breeding roses and alpine flowers. R. 'had a strong-willed character and was an energetic, you can say, spirited personality - recalled in the biographical sketch of Vladimir Prelog. - His sincerity and directness often shocked many of those who communicate with him, and sometimes they even felt insulted. At the same time, he was able to readily accept criticism if it was well argued. "
In 1912, Mr.. R. married Anna Haussmann. Children they had no. In 1950, Mr.. divorced wife. A year later, a scientist finds a new marriage, choosing a life partner Gertrude Aklin.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, P. Werner was awarded the Medal of the Swiss Chemical Society (1923), . Leblanc Medal of the French Chemical Society (1928), . Stanislao Cannizzaro prize of the Italian National Academy of Sciences (1936), . Scheele Medal of the Swedish Chemical Society (1938) and the Faraday Medal of the British Society of Chemistry (1958),
. He was awarded honorary degrees from Harvard University and the University of Basel, Zagreb, Paris, Bordeaux, Prague, Glasgow and Geneva. R. was a foreign member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Yugoslav Academy of Sciences, Royal Society of London, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Royal Flemish Academy of Sciences, Literature and Arts.
. Serbian Academy of Sciences, Academy of Sciences of the USSR and Poland.