SING Richard( English biochemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1952)
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Biography SING Richard
genus. October 28, 1914
English biochemist Richard Laurence Millington Synge was born in Liverpool. He was the eldest child and only son of Charlotte Catherine (Swann) and Laurence Millington Singh, stockbroker. Being engaged in Winchester College, preparatory school in Hampshire, C. won a scholarship to study classical languages and classical literature at Trinity College, Cambridge University. However, under the influence of his great-grandfather and inspired by a report published in the newspapers about the speech by Frederick Goulenda Hopkins, S., enrolling in 1933. at Trinity College, chose biochemistry. Additional scholarship enabled him to post at Trinity College in 1936. continue their education in the Cambridge Biochemical Laboratory.
Over the next three years. conducted a study glycoproteins, which are complex molecules of carbohydrates and amino acids. In the course of this work, he found that for acetylated amino acids is characterized by different affinity to water and chloroform. This distinction, however, made it impossible to separate them for analysis by any method available then. Laboratory Director Charles Martin suggested that C. cooperation with the senior students at Cambridge University, Archer Martin, known for his ability to separate complex chemical mixtures. Martin has developed a new technology for running the extraction during the work on his doctoral dissertation on the components of Vitamin E. In 1938. Martin moved from Cambridge University in the laboratory of the Research Association of the wool industry in Leeds, and the following year with. followed him, having received financial support of the International sekretarianta wool industry, private trade organization. Leeds C. continued to work on his doctoral thesis on protein analysis.
Industrial application of countercurrent extraction process with a view to providing the desired product from a mixture lasted for many years. In this procedure the mixture, you want to share, is introduced into the stream, consisting of two immiscible liquids that flow in opposite directions. Small difference in affinity shared substances to one or another liquid greatly enhanced by re-exchange, made to separate a mixture of two solutions. Martin C. constructed a similar device, which attempted to ensure that the chloroform was moving in one direction along the wool fibers, while the water flowed in the opposite direction along the cotton fibers. However, because the installation did not possess the necessary high efficiency of extraction, they appealed to the analytic method of adsorption chromatography.
In 1906, Mr.. Russian botanist Mikhail Color developed a method of adsorption chromatography for the analysis of complex substances derived from plants. Long glass tube filled with thoroughly pulverized substance having an affinity for the various components of chemical mixtures, the sample is placed in the beginning of the column. When the solvent was passed trickled through the column, they shared a substance that strongly attracted to the adsorbent surface of the ground, passed through the column more slowly than those that attracted less. This analytical procedure, although effective, was limited to a choice of nozzles columns.
In 1941, Mr.. Martin C. tried out an inert filler, which kept a strong associated solvent in a stationary position, while the pass through to the other solvent and a mixture. Substances would be separated by their different affinity to the fixed and moving solvent. This method allowed a much greater range of conditions than was possible with adsorption chromatography. Since the separation of substances occurs as a result of their distribution between two phases of solvents, this method was called partition chromatography.
Two years later, having received in 1943. doctorate, C. entered the state Listerovskogo Institute of Preventive Medicine in London as a biochemist. Being engaged in the analysis of peptide antibiotics, he continued at the same time cooperate with Martin in improving the method of partition chromatography. In 1944, finding that cellulose in filter paper perfectly connects polar solvents such as water, these two scientists developed a technique of paper chromatography. With this method, a drop of the substance being analyzed is placed at one end of the filter paper, which is then laid in a closed vessel containing water-rich solvent is moving. As the solvent that is moving under the action of capillary forces along the filter paper, the components of the mixture are taken away by the solvent at different distances from the initial position. When using two different solvent systems (which move at right angles to each other), or two-dimensional chromatography, is even more clear separation of the components of the mixture is subjected to analysis. Using the method of two-dimensional paper chromatography with. determined that the composition of amino acids is an antibiotic gramicidin S.
1947. S. held at the Institute of Physical Chemistry in Uppsala, where the Swedish biochemist Arne Tiselius studied the adsorption of amino acids and peptides on the corner. When in 1948. S. returned to England, he was appointed head of the department of chemistry of proteins and carbohydrates Rouettskogo Research Institute in Eyberdine (Scotland). At this institute, which is led by John Boyd Orr, C. dealt with problems of assimilation of food animals and purification of intermediate products of metabolism of proteins.
In 1952, Mr.. S. and Martin was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for the discovery of the method of partition chromatography ". In his Nobel lecture with. spoke about the broad application of this method for biochemical studies, . including the emission of amino acids and distribution of proteins in living organisms, . action of enzymes, . the sequence of amino acids in peptide chains of proteins, . analysis of carbohydrates, . lipin and nucleic acids, . as well as the products of Pharmacology,
. He also described the application of this method in the metallurgy and industrial organic chemistry, and finally use it to monitor food and medicine.
In 1958 ... 1959. S. was a consultant on the biochemistry Ruakurskoy station study of animals in Hamilton, New Zealand, and from 1967. until retirement nine years later worked in the Council for Research in Agriculture Research Institute for Food in Norwich (England). S. was an honorary professor at School of Biological Sciences University of East Anglia (1968 ... 1984) and a member of the Editorial Board of 'biochemical journal' ( 'Biochemical Journal') (1949 ... 1955).
In 1943, Mr.. S. married Ann Stephen, a physician and niece of writer Virginia Woolf. In the couple of four daughters and three sons. C., a tall man with gray-blue eyes, likes to work in the garden, skiing, learning foreign languages, travel, interested in literature.
The scientist was awarded the Medal of John Price Uezerilla Franklinovskogo Institute (1959). S. - Member of the Royal Society of London, the Royal Irish Academy, the American Society of Biochemistry and the European society of specialists in the field of chemistry of plants.