Soddy (Soddy), Frederic( English chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1921)
Comments for Soddy (Soddy), Frederic
Biography Soddy (Soddy), Frederic
September 2, 1877, Mr.. - September 22, 1956
English chemist Frederick Soddy was born in Eastbourne. He was the seventh son of London merchant Benjamin Soddy and Hannah (Green) Soddy. The boy was only two years old when his mother died. S. brought up his half-sister. U S. soon became interested in science, and science teacher at Eastbourne College advised him to go to Oxford University to study chemistry. Preparing for income,. a year worked at University College in Wells Eberistuite. In 1895, Mr.. he was admitted to Merton College at Oxford University and received fellowships. There he studied chemistry at the William Ramsay in 1898. was awarded a diploma with honors. Over the next two years. held in Oxford independent chemical research.
In 1900, Mr.. S. He was appointed assistant professor of chemistry at the University Makgillskom in Montreal (Canada). Here he teamed up with Ernest Rutherford was working on the problem of radioactivity. This problem is related to the fundamentals of theoretical chemistry, laid down in 1869. Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev Mendeleev arranged the known chemical elements, whereas in the periodic table, . compiled on the basis of the principle that stable elements were arranged in a certain order, . where they differed from each other only atomic mass,
. Further investigation revealed, however, puzzling violation of the order among some elements, especially radioktivnyh. They were unstable and turned into elements that seemed to 'fall' from the table. Rutherford and C. jointly developed the theory of decay of radioactive elements. According to this theory, some of the most difficult elements of gain stability, throwing a small, but sufficiently disparate units of mass, charge and energy from their nuclei in the form of alpha, beta and gamma radiation. In the process of radioactive decay of other elements are formed. Back in 1903. in England, with. worked with Ramsay, while at the same time, his studies at University College London. Being engaged in the study of radioactive decay of radium, it is experimentally proved contained in his theory of scientific prediction, as a result of the decay of radium produced helium. This was the first documented case of the formation of one element from another.
In 1904. S. began to lecture on physical chemistry and radioactivity at the University of Glasgow. There, through a series of experiments showed that the radium is formed as a result of the gradual decay of uranium atoms. Thus, C. speculated that in the course of this transformation should be formed intermediate element. Conjecture C. confirmed in 1906. American physicist boltwoodite Bertrand, who described this item ionium.
During his research work in Glasgow. studied the properties of the radioactive elements, which can be separated by conventional chemical means. In 1910,. He came to the conclusion that 'elements with different atomic mass may have the same chemical properties'. Over the next two years, scientists have extended the scope of their experiments to include non-radioactive elements. In 1913, Mr.. S. proposed the concept of isotopes of atoms of the same element that differ in physical properties. All isotopes of one element in the periodic table occupy the same place (the term 'isotope' means 'same place'), but have different atomic mass.
Period of work at the University of Glasgow was a scientist truly productive. It was at this time. formulated the law of radioactive displacement, . who claims, . that the study of alpha-particles is the transformation of one element into an isotope of another element, . located in two places below the periodic table, . and beta radiation causes a shift by one place above,
. Rule shift has made it possible to predict the sequence of decay of many radioactive elements, defining thus forming elements on the basis of a particular type of radiation, and including them in the periodic table.
Made with. discoveries were of fundamental importance to chemistry. According to the traditional chemical theory, atomic masses of elements were expressed in whole numbers, but observations in many cases showed the presence of small deviations. The theory is logically explained isotopes occurring variations in atomic mass, and again raised the question, first raised by British chemist William Prout in 1815.: Do all atoms consist of some of the same komponentovN colleague S., Francis Y. Aston, found an answer and was honored for his work of the Nobel Prize.
In 1914, a year when the First World War,. resigned from the University of Glasgow and was appointed professor of chemistry at the University of Aberdeen. Although made by scientists to contribute to the aid of their country at war forced him to suspend the implementation of the planned research program, he was able to confirm two predictions, deriving from the law of radioactive displacement. Tracing the origin of the element actinium, he proved that an ordinary lead is actually a mixture of isotopes.
Being in 1919. Professor of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry at Oxford University, C. devoted much of his time raising the level of education and modernizing the university laboratory. In 1920, Mr.. He predicted that the isotopes can be used to determine the geological age of rocks and fossils, known as the rate of radioactive decay. His suggestion eventually led to the development of modern technology of radioactive dating such as the appearance of the method of dating using carbon-14, developed in the 40-ies. American chemist Willard F. Libby.
In 1921, Mr.. S. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for his contribution to the chemistry of radioactive substances and for his study of nature and origin of the isotopes'. In his Nobel lecture "The Origin of the concept of isotopes' (" The Origins of the Conseption of Isotopes ") C. praised his work as merely 'a small part of the great pioneering work in many areas', which was held over the past 20 years. He also expressed gratitude to Rutherford for the fact that he was accustomed to the problems of radioactivity in the very beginning of his scientific career, when he worked in Montreal.
After receiving the Nobel Prize with. gradually withdrew from active research in the field of chemistry and turned his attention to the sphere of economic, social and political theory, has written several books on these topics. He is also interested in the theoretical problems of mathematics. However, C. gained the greatest fame for his contributions to the theory of atomic structure. Despite the fact that he foresaw the potential importance of the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes, . In recent years, the life scientist, . Deeply concerned about the emergence of nuclear weapons and nuclear arms race, . urged his colleagues to take responsibility for the social implications of their research.,
. In 1900, Mr.
. S. married Winifred Bailly. They had three children. After his wife died in 1936. S. the age of 59 he retired from his post as professor at Oxford University and moved to Brighton, where he died in 1956
In addition to the Nobel Prize, C. was awarded Stanislao Cannizzaro Italian National Academy of Sciences (1913), the Albert Medal of the Royal Society of Arts (1951) and an honorary doctorate from Oxford University. The scientist was a member of the British chemical and the Royal Society, foreign member of academies of sciences of Italy, the Soviet Union and Sweden.