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Taub (Taube), Henry

( Canada-American chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1983)

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Biography Taub (Taube), Henry
genus. November 30, 1915
Canada-American chemist Henry Taube was born in Nyudorfe (Saskatchewan, Canada), the son Albertine (Taydetski) and Samuel Taube Taube. After graduating from the local high school, he enrolled at the University of Saskatchewan, where in 1935. received a bachelor of science, and two years later became Master. Then T. involved in the University of California at Berkeley, and in 1940. he was awarded a doctoral degree in chemistry. Left at Berkeley as a teacher, he conducted during the year chemistry course for graduate students. In 1941, Mr.. T. He was appointed assistant professor at Cornell University and in the same year became an American citizen. From 1946 to 1961. He taught at the University of Chicago, which subsequently became a full professor from 1956 to 1959. directed chemical faculties. Since 1962. T. - Professor of Chemistry at Stanford University, and in 1978. He headed a Department of Chemistry.
In the period when T. Started a complicated course of chemistry at the University of Chicago, he attracted the opportunities provided by research. Like many other chemists in the years preceding the Second World War, T. interest shortly before the discovery of radioactive isotopes, called radioisotopes. Radioisotopes emit radioactive particles - alpha, beta or gamma rays, which can be detected using stsintsillyatsionnyh counters. The use of radioisotopes simplified pilot and research in natural sciences and empowers them. For example, carbon-14 (a radioisotope carbon-12) contains the kernel of its atom 2 extra proton and emits beta particles (electrons). If we introduce the carbon-14 to carbon-containing molecule, it can be easy to detect and determine its quantity in the experimental system.
At Cornell and the University of Chicago T. developed new experimental methods, in which radioisotopes are used to quantify and further describe the mechanisms of redox reactions and substitution reactions. In the substitution reaction is the transfer of an atom from one molecule to another, in redox reactions is carried out electron transfer. The loss of electrons is called oxidation, the acquisition of an electron - the restoration. By 1940, Mr.. qualitative aspects of redox reactions have been well known. The presence of artificially derived radioisotopes meant that the rate of redox reactions has become possible to measure with the help of tracer.
T. particularly interested in coordination compounds (first described by Alfred Werner), in which the central atom or ion is surrounded by a group of atoms, called ligands. In the chemistry of coordination compounds, much attention is paid to the study of chemical bonds and reactions of metals. Metals differ from non-metals because their atoms, one or more electrons weakly bound to the nucleus and easily torn, resulting in a metal atom becomes a positively charged ion. In 40-ies. T. showed that metal ions in solution form chemical bonds with water molecules - in other words, water molecules act as ligands. This assumption has previously proposed, but was not proven. T. described the relationship that exists between the rates of redox reactions, the reaction rate of substitution of the ligands and the electronic configurations of metals and metal complexes.
T. showed that there is a high correlation between the electronic structure of some transition metals (metals, possessing both the properties of metals and nonmetals properties) and the rate of substitution reactions of ligands. As published in 1952. article he proposed the concept of transfer of inner-and outer-electron atom. It is now known that both mechanisms are involved in the process of energy transfer in a variety of biological systems.
Together with his colleague Howard Myers T. in 1954. published in 'Journal of the American Chemical Society' ( 'Journal of the American Chemical Society') article on the redox reactions of coordination compounds. In it the scientist described the mechanism of chromium recovery in an aqueous solution of ionic metal complex, . containing cobalt, . and informed, . that electron transfer from chromium to cobalt carried intermediates, . in which the chloride-time images of the so-called bridge,
. Prior to the T. the reconstruction of a metal ion other was known only that the electrons are transferred from chromium to cobalt and that the chloride ions are transferred from cobalt to chromium. Launched T. concept of an intermediate bridge explain how this reaction occurs.
In 1969. T. together with another colleague, Carol Kreutz, received, and described a new type of positively charged ion. Named cation mixed valence, . it consists of two atoms of ruthenium (metal, . the presence of platinum ore), . each associated with five molecules of ammonia, . with the pyrazine ring, . forming a bridge between the ionic complexes,
. This cation mixed valence, now known as ion Kreutz - Taube, was used in 70-ies. T. and his colleagues to examine rates and mechanisms of intramolecular electron transfer in redox reactions. A study of Investigation of the relationship between the rates of substitution reactions of oxygen atoms and the electronic structure of transition metals has made some contribution to the understanding (in terms of quantum mechanics) hydroxylation and cellular tsitohromfermentnyh systems.,
. In 1976
. T. and his colleagues have created a complex of technetium, which is currently used as the labeled molecules in clinical medicine, radioactive. They also studied the chemistry of osmium and ruthenium complexes and others have prepared the first set with biazotnym bridge to further clarify the structural details of the chemical bond between the metals and their ligands.
In 1983. T. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for the study of reaction mechanisms of electron transfer, especially of metal complexes'. In his opening speech on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Ingvar Lukvist traced the development of theoretical chemistry from the work of Svante Arrhenius over the reactions with electron transfer to the contribution of T. in this area. In response, the T. talked about how chemistry plays an important role in human life. 'However, the benefits brought by science, can not be measured only in terms of physics - he went. - Science as an intellectual exercise enriches our culture and of itself acts oblagorazhivayusche. Each new information about how atoms interact, 'express themselves' in the structure and transformations - and not only dead matter, but especially in the living - is awe'.
In 1952, Mr.. T. married Mary Alice Uesch. In the couple's two sons and two daughters. His spare time, scientists have conducted, collect records or working in the garden.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, T. awarded a medal of Charles Frederick Chandler, Columbia University (1964), . Willard Gibbs Medal of the American Chemical Society (1971), . National Medal 'For his scientific achievements' of the National Science Foundation (1977), . Medal Beylara University of Illinois (1983), . Award for Chemistry of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (1983) and the Priestley Medal of the American Chemical Society (1984),
. Scientist - a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society and the Royal Society of Lund physiographic. T. awarded honorary degrees from University of Saskatchewan.
Jewish University in Jerusalem and the University of Chicago.

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