Tiselius (Tiselius), Arne( Swedish biochemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1948)
Comments for Tiselius (Tiselius), Arne
Biography Tiselius (Tiselius), Arne
August 10, 1902, Mr.. - October 29, 1971
Swedish biochemist Arne Wilhelm Tiselius Kaurin (Tizelius) was born in Stockholm, the son of Hans Abraham Yisona Tiselius, employee insurance company, a Norwegian priest and his daughter Rosa (Kaurin) Tiselius. When in 1906. the boy's father died, his mother and two young children moved to Gothenburg, where her relatives and close friends. In high school in Gothenburg T. was in class for the gifted teacher, a teacher of chemistry and biology, who, noticing the boy's interest in chemistry, encouraged him in every way. In 1921, Mr.. T. enrolled at Uppsala University in 1925. received a master's degree in chemistry, physics and mathematics. He stayed to work in Uppsala University as an assistant researcher in the field of physical chemistry at the Theodor Svedberg.
. In terms of scientific interests Svedberg was to examine the phenomenon of electrophoresis - the movement of dispersed particles in solution under an external electric field
. Virtually all large particles, while in solution, have an electric charge. Since the particles tend to have different speeds of movement (migration), which is determined by their size, shape and electrical charge, electrophoresis, theoretically, should allow the highlight of the solution components at the molecular level. In practice, however, various factors, particularly the presence of convection currents, difficult to achieve the desired results with this method. Svedberg proposed T. to investigate this phenomenon.
T. found that with careful control of temperature and electric current can be minimized convection currents, to obtain migration. Developed sophisticated optical methods to establish the migration of molecules, he proved that with the help of electrophoresis of the mixture, which in other types of analysis, for example using centrifuges, appeared homogeneous, are sharing. In 1938. T. summarized the results in his doctoral dissertation, and for many years developed its approach to the use of electrophoresis remained paramount.
Despite the successful solution of the problem before it Svedberg, T. felt some disappointment. He described the feeling in the article-memory 'Thinking about the past from different points of view' ( 'Reflections From Both Sides of the Counter'): 'Without a doubt, . My proposed method was a definite step forward, . but he took me to the threshold, . I, . Seeing the potential to obtain very interesting results, . was unable to prove anything definite,
. I still remember the feeling of almost physical pain when looking at some of the electrophoretic picture, especially whey proteins, I decided to take on an entirely different problem. However, in my mind remained notch, and it is a few years later bore fruit. "
The problem, which has been undertaken T., consisted in measuring the diffusion of water and other molecules in the mineral zeolite. Part of this research, he spent the Frick Chemical Laboratory, Princeton University, where the grant allocated by the Rockefeller Foundation, worked for the entire 1934/35 academic z. The researchers have managed to carefully measure the diffusion of water molecules in zeolite crystals.
Returning to Uppsala University, T. began a systematic study - both in theory and in experimental plans - the factors that control the electrophoresis. In 1936, Mr.. he managed to construct a new, more sensitive electrophoretic apparatus. Applying it to the analysis of blood serum, T. able to prove that whey protein, known as globulin, actually consists of three kinds, which he called alpha, beta and gamma globulin. In 1938. at Uppsala University was first established in Sweden as professor of biochemistry, and it was done primarily in order to ensure T. permanent academic position.
For a long time work T. on electrophoresis stimulated the belief that the methods of separation of molecular components are essential for biochemistry, but in the early 40-ies. He drew attention to another method of separation - chromatography. Chromatography involves the use of the principle of adsorption - trends of different molecules in different ways coupled with the surface of certain substances.
Chromatography first applied in 1906. Russian botanist Mikhail color, who used it to separate the pigments in plant extracts. Method of Colors is to add a solution containing the analyte (eluate) in a glass tube filled with particles of a specific adsorbent, such, such as coal or sugar. The different rate of adsorption caused the appearance of colored bands in the tube at different heights. Since T. distributed technology, the proposed color for the separation of colorless substances, he preferred to use the term 'adsorption analysis', not 'chromatography'. In addition, T. shared substance is not on their final position in an adsorption column, and depending on the length of time that you want eluate to pass through the column, provided that it is added continuously. Continuing his earlier work on electrophoresis and diffusion in the zeolite, a scientist has developed optical technology to establish a picture of adsorption, making substances eluate.
T. studied the many variations of this technology, including the use of the eluate, adsorbed on the whole stronger than any of the shared substances. This technique he called pressurization analysis. As in his earlier work on electrophoresis, it is the fact that he has made to clarify the fundamental principles of chromatography, allowing scientists to achieve major successes in the development of technology.
During the 40-ies. administrative duties and adviser took from T. considerable time. He became an influential adviser in government circles and Sweden until the last days of his life he worked in many government committees. In 1946, Mr.. T. agreed to a four-year lead in the Swedish State Council for Research in the field of natural sciences, and in 1947. became vice-president of the Nobel Foundation.
In 1948, Mr.. T. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for the study of electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for the discovery related to the complex nature of serum proteins'. In his opening speech on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences п-.пг. Vestgren said that T. 'made a lot of far-reaching discoveries with the help of his method of electrophoresis'. For example, finding that the globulin is not a homogeneous substance, T., noted Vestgren, laid the foundations' research work aimed at the separation of human blood plasma into its component parts ... T. and his staff had also very important for medical experiments with antibodies that have a protein nature, which are formed in the blood at the time of immunization. "
T. always stood for the exchange of ideas between different areas of science. He himself applied the principles of physics to improve the technology for chemical analysis to clarify the biological systems. Often working as a consultant, T. strengthen links between science and production, as well as the establishment of contacts between scientists and the government. He encourage the expansion of international scientific exchange and insisted that other scientists have shown greater interest in environmental issues, ethical and social aspects of science and technology.
In 1930. T. married Ingrid Margaret Dalen. From this marriage the spouses have a son and daughter. T. was modest, quiet man, had a gentle humor. The scientist was very fond of birds, watching them and even became the founder Baknammerovskoy Academy of Sciences, which consisted of several of his friends who shared his interest in ornithology. When in 1960. T. was elected president of the Nobel Foundation, he established the Nobel Symposium. At his going to the leading scientists rewarded each of the areas of science, to discuss recent scientific advances, especially their ethical and social aspects. When T. organized the international meeting of directors of research institutes, he suffered a heart attack and he died. It happened in Stockholm on October 29, 1971
In addition to the Nobel Prize, T. was awarded the Medal of the Franklin Institute Franklinovskogo (1956) and the Paul Karrer Medal for achievements in chemistry, handed him to Zurich University in 1961. He was awarded honorary degrees from universities in Stockholm, Paris, Bologna, Glasgow, Madrid, Lyon, Saint Peter, University of California at Berkeley, Prague, as well as Cambridge and Oxford Universities. The scientist was a member of 37 academies of sciences, in t. h. U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Royal Institution of Great Britain. T. was also a Knight of the Legion of Honor of France.