TODD (Todd), Alexander( Scottish chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1957)
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Biography TODD (Todd), Alexander
genus. October 2, 1907
Scottish chemist Alexander Robertus Todd was born to a businessman Alexander Todd and Jean (Leuri) Todd in Glasgow. Glasgow was a city where spent his childhood and youth of the future scientist. Here he was in high school Glen Allen. It also entered the university in 1929. finished it, a Bachelor of Science in organic chemistry. After a short period of skill acquisition research T. became a graduate student University of Frankfurt (Germany), where he studied organic chemistry. Here in 1931. he was awarded a doctorate for his thesis on chemistry of bile acids. He then continued his studies at Oxford University, is a graduate of Robert Robinson.
In laboratories Robinson T. studied anthocyanins (natural pigments that cause red, blue and violet color of plants), especially the pigments of flowers roses, hollyhocks, geraniums, cornflower and Evening Primrose. While the chemical structure and composition of chlorophyll and anthocyanin evoked considerable interest. They investigated the Richard Vilshtetter and other scientists. In 1933. T. received his doctorate at Oxford University for its efforts on the synthesis of pigments of flowers. Robinson, taught him that the synthesis and decomposition of organic compounds are not only an additional method of analysis of chemical structure, but also a way to correlate structure with biological function of the substance.
In 1933. T. returned to Scotland and began working at Edinburgh University as an assistant at the Department of Medicinal Chemistry. Here, in collaboration with George Bargerom he investigated the chemical structure of vitamin B1 (thiamine) as the main component of human food. Lack of thiamine can cause disease of nerve cells, known as beriberi. In a system of enzymes (enzymes), thiamine acts as a coenzyme (part of the enzyme needed for digestion and fermentation), which provides the oxidation of hydrocarbons. In the laboratory Bargera T. synthesized thiamine in crystalline form, and this technology was soon applied in the British pharmaceutical industry for large-scale production of vitamin B1. In 1939, Mr.. T. began to give lectures on biochemistry in Listerovskom Institute of Preventive Medicine in London. Continuing the study of vitamins, it focused on vitamin E (tocopherol) and vitamin B12 (tsiankobalamine). Tocopherol is a vitamin, fat-soluble, antioxidant, which tends to stabilize biological membranes, especially those that contain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Vitamin B12 - is a coenzyme that is required for normal maturation of red blood cells. Lack of vitamin B12 causes malignant anemia. Working Listerovskom Institute, T. established the chemical structure of vitamin B12. He also studied the healing properties of Cannabis sativa (marijuana).
In 1938. T. accepted the offer to take the position of professor of chemistry and director of chemical laboratories of the University of Manchester. At the same time, he was a professor at Caltech, which came to lecture and give advice. In Manchester, the T. completed its study of vitamin E and Cannabis sativa. In 1942, Mr.. He was elected a member of the Royal Society of London, and two years later became Professor of Organic Chemistry and Head of Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Cambridge. He also was a member of the University Christ College. In the hands of T. completely concentrated control over the organization and development of university chemical laboratory, and this was what he wanted: the responsibility and power to complement each other, responsibility without authority is useless.
In 1942, Mr.. T. took up the study of nucleic acids and nucleotide coenzymes. T. and one of his staff clarified the important features of the chemical structure and reaction mechanisms of nucleic acids. They have also synthesized two important nucleotides: FAD (FAD) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). FAD is a coenzyme involved in biological redox reactions. When the hydrolysis of ATP as phosphate groups released a significant amount of energy that is used for biochemical reactions in living cells. As a result of work carried out by T. and his colleagues in 40 ... 50-ies. as well as studies carried out in 50-ies. James D. Watson and Francis Crick, the structure of ribonucleic (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic (DNA) acids were finally installed.
In 1957. T. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide coenzyme'. During the opening speech on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Arne Fredga carried out by comparing T. fundamental work to establish the structure of nucleotides with the construction of 'a solid foundation ... for future development in this area. Based on this work, other scholars have put forward a stunning theory of structure chains [of acids and bases], it seems that they can be rolled into a spiral, inside which there are grounds'.
In 1962. T. became a peer, with the title of Baron Trampingtonskogo. The following year he became head of Christ's College, and contributed to the establishment at the University of Cambridge, Churchill College.
In 1937, Mr.. T. married Alison Sarah Dale. In the couple had a son and two daughters.
T. was awarded many prizes. Among them: Lavoisier Medal of the French Chemical Society (1948), . Davy Medal (1949) and the Royal Medal (1955) Royal Society of London, . Medal Longstaffa British Chemical Society (1963), . Copley Medal of Royal Society of London (1970) and the Lomonosov Gold Medal of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1979),
. From 1950 to 1973. T. - Member many other professional societies, possessor honorary degrees universities Durham, London, Glasgow, Warwick, Kiev, Paris, Michigan and Strasbourg, and also Harvard, Tufts, Oxford and Cambridge.