Uilkinson Dzhefri( English chemist Nobel Prize on chemistry, 1973)
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Biography Uilkinson Dzhefri
genus. July 14 1921
English chemist Dzhefri Uilkinson born in Springsayde near from Manchester, in family Henry Wilkinson, specialist on furnish of houses and decorator, and Ruth Uilkinson raging from family farmers and weavers. He, the eldest of three children of spouses Wilkinson, early developed an interest in chemistry. In part, this was facilitated by the fact that Y. from time to time went back to his uncle by the mother, in a small chemical company, the owner of which he was. U. in elementary school, located near his home, and in 1932. provided by the county won a scholarship to the todmordenskoy private secondary school, where the future scientist stood out for its success in the field of chemistry. In 1939, Mr.. He graduated from this school and received royal scholarship to study at Imperial College of Science and Technology, University of London.
At the end of Imperial College have. stayed there for research on military orders. After working briefly with X. V.E. Briscoe, he moved from England to Canada, where he enrolled in the National Research Council of Canada, a research assistant of the Canadian Branch of the Project to build atomic bomb. Here he remained until 1946, when, having received from the Imperial College of Science and Technology doctoral scholarship, was a nuclear chemist at Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, which at that time was headed by Glenn T. Seaborg: Y. dreamed of working with powerful cyclotron, a design suitable during the Second World War.
Y. worked at Berkeley until 1950, Mr., , , . in atoms whom internal electronic orbital is remains not until end filled and which possess properties as metallov, . well and nonmetals, . with predominance first),
. Becoming next year assistent-professor at Harvard University, U. continued engage these research during subsequent four years.
. The most significant of the work carried out by scientists was initiated at Harvard, where he focused his attention on the problem with the ferrocene - unusual connections, opened in 1951
. chemists, Thomas J. Keely and P.L. Pawson. Ferrocene is a structure of the two pentagonal rings composed of atoms of hydrogen and carbon, are connected with one atom of iron. In accordance with the then dominant theory is considered that the molecules of this type should be extremely unstable. In fact, the ferrocene showed a significant chemical and thermal resistance. In an effort to find an explanation of these features and expand its knowledge about the structure of transition metal compounds with organic molecules have. engaged in a careful study of the structure of ferrocene.
Applying long before this developed method of nuclear magnetic resonance, U. in collaboration with R.B. Woodward made an important discovery. If Kealy and Pawson thought, . that dvuhchlennye uglerodvodo-native ferrocene rings lie close to each other and connected by a single, . relatively weak bond with the iron atom, . a U., . opposite, . suggested, . that these two rings form a foliation, . like a sandwich structure with an iron atom between them,
. Thus, according to his model, the central metal atom is associated with each of the five carbon atoms in the upper and lower rings. This unusual arrangement explains surprising stability of the molecule. Due to this discovery established a new class of compounds.
Y. and his students at Harvard University have continued to synthesize all the new 'Sandwich' compounds, including those in which there are carbonyl and nitrosyl groups. Shortly thereafter, I. received the 'Sandwich' compound, which was characterized by direct chemical bonds between rhenium and hydrogen, which at that time is of considerable interest to chemists. Further study of the scientists the ability of transition metals to form chemical bonds has helped to revive interest in organometallic chemistry.
During the nine months I. continued study of ferrocene and other 'Sandwich' compounds in the laboratory chemist Nils Yanniksena B'errum in Copenhagen. Such an opportunity presented by researcher because he received Guggenheim Fellowships. In December 1955. U. returned to London, he was appointed Professor of Inorganic Chemistry at Imperial College of Science and Technology, University of London. At the time, this was the only Department of Inorganic Chemistry, established in the United Kingdom. Here Y. continued study of transition metals, focusing on metals such as ruthenium, rhodium and rhenium.
In 1973, Mr.. U. with Ernst Fischer was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for pioneering done independently of each other work in the field of organometallic chemistry, the so-called Sandwich, compounds'. In his opening speech on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Ingvar Lindqvist said: 'The phenomena, which have. and Fischer drew attention could see all the chemists of the world. However, their adequate interpretation did not appear until as long as these two scientists did not come to the conclusion that certain compounds can not be understood without proposing a new concept. She was named the concept of 'Sandwich' compounds. In his Nobel lecture I. describe the lengthy process that brought him and those who had been investigating the problem, to the opening.
Work for which I. and Fischer received the Nobel Prize, has stimulated research into previously unknown, highly productive areas of inorganic, organic and theoretical chemistry. She also laid the foundation for the development of catalysts used in the production of new, high-strength plastics, pharmaceuticals (eg, for treatment of Parkinson's disease) and low-grade fuel.
In 1977. U. was a lecturer at the University of New South Wales, Australia, and in 1983. - Lecturer of the Italian and Royal Society of Chemistry. The scientist - author of more than 400 scientific articles.
In 1952, Mr.. U. married Liz Selver Shaw, the daughter of a former rector of the Danish higher pharmaceutical schools. They have two daughters. About You. speak as a man's cordial, witty, optimistic. Leisure time dedicated scientist studies organic chemistry.
W., in addition to the Nobel Prize has been awarded many prizes. Among them: Lavoisier Medal of the French Chemical Society (1959), the Royal Medal of Royal Society of London (1981) and the Medal of the University of Pisa, Galileo (1983). Scientist - a member of the Royal Society of London, a foreign member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences.