FISCHER (Fischer), Hans( German chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1930)
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Biography FISCHER (Fischer), Hans
July 27, 1881, Mr.. - March 31, 1945
German chemist Hans Fischer was born in g. Hoechst-am-Main in the family of Anna Fisher (nee Gerdegen) and Eigen Fischer, a chemist by profession and director of the factory and the company 'Kalle' for the production of dyes. After completing elementary school in Stuttgart F. received secondary education in Wiesbaden, which was completed in 1899. At the University of Lausanne studied chemistry and medicine, continued his studies at the University of Marburg, where in 1904 he. received a degree in chemistry and four years later, and a degree in medicine.
After a medical practice in the 2-nd medical clinic in Munich F. entire 1909. conducted experiments in chemistry under the guidance of Emil Fischer (namesake) in 1-m Berlin Chemical Institute. There he researched the complex structures of sugars and peptides (complexes, partly composed of amino acids - the basic compounds of living organisms). Back in 1910. in Munich, he began to study the structure of bilirubin - a reddish-yellow pigment found in bile and is known to be chemically similar hemin - blood pigment. Although many chemists have tried to determine the structure of these two compounds, and thus determine the nature of their relationship, the problem was too complicated.
In 1913, Mr.. F. became Lecturer in Physiology at the Munich Institute of Physiology. Three years later, he - a professor of medical chemistry at the University of Innsbruck. The hardships caused by the outbreak of the First World War, greatly complicated the conduct of pilot studies. In 1917, Mr.. his work was interrupted as a result of complications after suffering an attack of tuberculosis before he was forced to remove a kidney. At the end of the war he moved to the University of Vienna as professor of organic chemistry, and in 1921. he was given the same post in the Technical University of Munich, where he worked until the end of his scientific activities.
In Munich, F. organized a chemical laboratory and developed a scientific research program of natural pigments. Like other complex compounds, these pigments contain a combination of simpler compounds. One of these compounds, pyrrole, consists of four carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom connected to the ring. When the four pyrrole structures are connected in a closed ring, formed by a substance called porphyrin. At the time, believed that the porphyrin is the foundation of all natural pigments, including bilirubin and hemin. In reality, however, each pigment has some deputies and, moreover, the specific rearrangement of porphyrin groups. Only one molecule of hemin, for example, contains 76 atoms. For such a large molecule laws of chemical combinations possible to calculate all the variants of the structure (or isomers), each of which may have completely different chemical properties.
. Despite the complexity of the subject, a significant number of studies have been conducted on natural pigments
. In his works, EF. synthesized and breaks down large molecules in various ways, hoping to determine the characteristics of each combination. His ultimate aim was to understand the structure of hemin, bilirubin (which, as he believed, formed by the decomposition of hemin) and plant the green pigment chlorophyll (which was, in his view, is similar to hemoglobin). In the process of F. and his assistants have a wealth of new information about thousands of combinations of pyrrole and in 1929. He synthesized hemin.
In 1930. F. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for his research on the construction of hemin and chlorophyll, especially for the synthesis of hemin'. In his speech at the presentation H.G. Sederbaum, a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, called the work of F. with hemin and pigments of blood 'academic achievement, which could hardly be obtained by previous generations'. 'Research F. shown - continued Sederbaum - that nature, despite its excessive diversity rather sparingly uses the standard building material for the construction ... such as very different in appearance, and the dissemination of the two substances', as chlorophyll and the red pigment of blood.
As a fanatical explorer, F. deeply experienced the inability to continue its work because of the Second World War. Distraught after the almost complete destruction of his institute as a result of the bombing of military aircraft, he was in 1945. suicide. After his death several of his former colleagues to continue his work with chlorophyll and in 1960. finally describe its structure.
In 1935. F. married Viltrude Hauff, which was then half his age. Children they had. Although chemical studies have been his main occupation, he also enjoyed mountain climbing and skiing. A demanding teacher, he felt a great responsibility for their students, and they want help.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, F. was awarded the medal Liebig Germanskogo Chemical Society (1929), Davy medal of the Royal Society of London (1937) and other awards. He was an honorary doctorate from Harvard University.