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FISCHER (Fischer), Ernst

( Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1973)

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Biography FISCHER (Fischer), Ernst
genus. November 10, 1918
The German chemist Ernst Otto Fischer was born in Solna, a suburb of Munich, and was the youngest of three children of Carl Tobias Fischer, Professor of Physics Institute, Technical University of Munich, and Valentine Fisher (nee Danzer). F. was educated first at a local school, and then in the 'Gymnasium Theresa' and technical school in Munich. After training in 1937. He was called up for two years for military service in the Wehrmacht, and after the Second World War he served in Poland, France and the Soviet Union. Within six months he was in U.S. custody and was released in 1945
When in 1946. Munich Technical University was reopened, F. resumed his studies, doing them in conjunction with Walter Heber, a pioneer in the field of study metallokarbonilov (metals chemically bound to molecules containing carbon and oxygen). In 1952, Mr.. Munich S. awarded a doctorate, and he stayed here to work as an assistant researcher.
In his dissertation, written in 1951. and dedicated metallokarbonilam, F. subjected to detailed analysis of the structure ditsiklopentadienilnogo iron or ferrocene. Previously, chemists, TJ. Keely and P.L. Pawson was opened ferrocene, and found that it contains two five-membered rings of atoms of hydrogen and carbon, are connected with one atom of iron. Adopted at the time of the theory argued that such molecules must be highly volatile, although in reality this substance has excellent chemical and thermal resistance. F. decided to find an explanation for this anomaly.
. Initial studies on the stability of ferrocene led him to believe, . that Keely and Pawson mistaken, . when suspected, . that the two carbon-hydrogen of ferrocene rings lie in one plane and are connected by a relatively weak bond with the iron atom, . halfway,
. F. ferrocene described as 'a completely new type of covalent complex'. Using X-ray analysis, F. determined that the two rings are parallel, layers, or as a sandwich with an iron atom, located between the center. As a result, the central metal atom is associated with each of the five carbon atoms of the upper and lower ring. This explained the high stability of the molecule and led to the discovery of a new class of compounds.
In further experiments, F. confirmed that there are other molecules with similar structure. At the suggestion of Walter Gafner F. synthesized dibenzol chromium, which consisted of two parallel benzene rings connected located in the center of an atom of chromium. Most chemists believe that such a molecule can not create. F. continued his studies with transition metals (chemical elements, . in which the inner electron shell is not completely filled out and their properties are partially reminiscent of how the properties of metals, . and properties of non-metals), . giving special preference to metal complexes with arenes (aromatic hydrocarbons).,
. In 1954, Mr.
. F. became an assistant professor at Technical University of Munich. Three years later, he was Professor of Inorganic Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry at the Technical University of Munich. Simultaneously, he worked as a visiting professor to give lectures at the universities of Jena and Marburg, and then the University of Wisconsin in g. Madison.
In 1964, Mr.. F. replaced by Walter Heber the post direkora Institute of Inorganic Chemistry at the Technical University of Munich, where he created the perfect conditions for X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic studies of the molecular structure. His laboratory soon took a leading position in research in organometallic chemistry. Interested in the problems of in-depth research and the effectiveness of science, F. often appeared on these topics at the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, and by continuing to lecture abroad, the University of Florida (1971), the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1973).
In 1973, Mr.. F. shared with Geoffrey Wilkinson Nobel Prize for chemistry, the award 'for the innovative work done independently of each other, organometallic chemistry, the so-called Sandwich, compounds'. Indvar Lindqvist, . Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, . In his speech at the presentation of the winners said, . that 'the discovery and proof of new principles of relations and structures, . available in Sandwich compounds, . a significant achievement ', . practical value of which is currently impossible to predict.,
. Works F
. laid the groundwork for the creation of new catalysts used in various industrial processes, including obtaining drugs and fuels with low lead content. Since that time, he began to conduct research carbyne complexes of transition metals, which led to the emergence of new classes of organometallic compounds.
. Attentive towards colleagues and students, courteous and friendly, he was an inspired teacher
. In his spare time reading history course. Never been married.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, F. was awarded the Prize for Chemistry GцTttingen Academy of Sciences (1957) and Prize in Memory of Alfred Stock Germanskogo Chemical Society (1959). He is an honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, as well as many other scientific societies and has the honorary titles of the universities of Munich, Erlangen and Nuremberg.


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