Fukui (Fukui), Kenichi( Japanese chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1981)
Comments for Fukui (Fukui), Kenichi
Biography Fukui (Fukui), Kenichi
genus. October 4, 1918
Japanese chemist Kenichi Fukui was born in g. Nara on the island of Honshu, and was the eldest of three sons and Hie Rekihi Fukui, vneshtorgovogo businessman and manager. As high school students, F. showed little interest in chemistry, but his father persuaded him to enter the Faculty of Chemical Technology, Kyoto Imperial University (now Kyoto University). 'It was a decisive moment in choosing a profession' - later recalled F. He graduated in 1941. and over the next three years he worked in the chemistry of synthetic fuels in military laboratory. In 1948, Mr.. He received his doctorate at Kyoto University, is already over three years as assistant professor. In 1951, Mr.. He became a full (real) professor of physical chemistry and has since been constantly working at Kyoto University.
First studies F. been planned differently, and they have included work in areas such as modeling of reactions, organic synthesis in the presence of inorganic salts, as well as the kinetics and catalysis of polymerization. In carrying out these works he was interested in phenomena occurring at submolekulyarnom level in industrial chemical processes and their mathematical description.
Molecules - a group of atoms bonded together by electrons. In the chemical reactions between two or more molecules of the existing electronic communications break down and form new ones, which leads to the creation of a new substance. Often, new materials exhibit very different properties compared with the starting materials. The electrons are constantly moving around the nucleus of trajectories, called orbitals. The most well-studied reaction - a reaction in which both breaks or formed only one link. However, many so-called concerted reactions simultaneously under the influence of unknown forces formed or break a few links. Each molecule has more electrons, and each orbital is a component of the whole molecule. As described by Niels Bohr, each orbital has a characteristic energy level.
Under the influence of the theory of donor-acceptor complexes Robert C. Mulliken F. discovered in the early 50's, that only a small number of molecular orbitals, which he called the frontier orbitals, have relevance for the reaction. By chemical reaction, he understood the interaction between the occupied molecular orbitals with the utmost energy of a compound and occupied molecular orbitals with the lowest energy of another compound. One molecule provides the most weakly bound electrons of another molecule, which takes them to the place where they are firmly linked, creating a new orbital with an intermediate energy level.
As a result of decades of efforts F. determined that the geometric arrangement (or symmetry) frontier orbitals plays an important role in chemical reactions. At the same time, Roald Hoffman and R.B. Woodward, working independently of AF, described a series of laws that allow to predict the possibility of reaction between the organic molecules. Since their theory F. described the use of complex mathematical terms in Japanese magazines, they did not pay much attention. Only the publication of Woodward and Hoffmann (1965), presenting the description of patterns that were based on the concept of orbital symmetry, highlighted the importance of the ideas of F.
As a result, F. and Hoffman received in 1981. Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for the development of the theory of chemical reactions, they have created independently of each other'. 'Using his theory, F. discovered patterns for many groups of chemical reactions of organic compounds', - said Inga Fischer-Hyalmars, a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Then Fisher-Hyalmars is illustrated by the following example: "Naphthalene is an important starting compound in the manufacture of dyes. For a long time was known bewildering fact that the hydrogen atoms in different positions in the molecule naftaflina differ in their ability to react. Explanation for this was first found by using the theory of F. '. Moreover, added Fisher-Hyalmars, the contribution of two winners in the stereochemistry led 'to the radical change in planning chemical experiments'.
Later F. developed the concept of frontier orbitals using it to three or more of the reacting molecules.
American colleagues F. describe him as modest and pleasant man. His favorite kinds of recreation - walking to the outskirts of Kyoto, fishing and golfing. He and Tomoe Horie, whom he married in 1947, have a son and a daughter.
In 1970. F. was elected to the post of senior foreign scientist, a specialist of the U.S. National Science Foundation, from 1980. He is president of the branch of the Institute of Applied Arts and textile fibers at Kyoto University. He is a member of the International Academy of Quantum Molecular Science,. In 1978 ... 1979. was vice-president of the Japan Chemical Society, and in the period from 1983 to 1984. - Its president. In addition, in 1973. he participated in the implementation of US-Japanese research exchange program. He is also a member of the European Academy of Arts, Sciences and Humanities and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.