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Herzberg (Herzberg), Gerhard

( Germano-Canadian physicist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1971)

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Biography Herzberg (Herzberg), Gerhard
genus. December 25, 1904
Germanic-Canadian physicist Gerhard Herzberg was born in Hamburg, the son of Ella (nee Bieber), and Albin Herzberg. His early school years were spent in Hamburg, BA (1927) and Doctor (1928) he received in the Darmstadt Institute of Technology. His dissertation, completed when he was still a student, Hans Pay, was devoted to the interaction of matter with electromagnetic radiation. The following year he worked under Max Bohr, James Franck at Gottingen University, and a year later - with п-.п°. Tyndall at Bristol University in England. In 1929, Mr.. the age of 24 he had already published 20 scientific articles. In 1930. he was appointed privat-docent (guest lecturer) and senior assistant in Physics Darmstadt Institute of Technology.
Electromagnetic radiation - the energy in the wave form produced by electric charges. The electromagnetic spectrum includes infrared, visible and ultraviolet light, long radio waves, microwaves, X-ray and gamma-rays. When individual atoms are exposed to electromagnetic radiation, light, or they are absorbed or emitted, depending on whether the electrons to move them higher or lower energy level. This light forms a linear spectrum characteristic of these atoms wavelengths. Molecules have more complex spectra of atoms. Excitation of molecules includes intra fluctuations, curves of the molecular bonds and rotational changes. The molecules emit and absorb light in a broader range of wavelengths. Spectroscopy and analysis of the spectral lines can provide information about the structure and energy levels of atoms and molecules.
In 1929, analyzing the spectra of molecular nitrogen, X. and his colleague at the Darmstadt Institute Werner Geytler proved that the nitrogen nucleus can not consist only of protons and electrons, as previously. Shortly thereafter, the English physicist James Chadwick discovered that the neutral particles, neutrons, is a major component of the atomic nucleus. H. discovered a linear spectrum of diatomic oxygen, now called Herzberg bands, which is of great importance for studies of the upper layers of the atmosphere.
Nazi persecution of Jews forced X. emigrate in 1935. in Canada, where he became a professor at University of Saskatchewan. Although at the moment when he arrived, the possibilities for experimental work was not, he managed to create a spectral laboratory. Since he was a foreigner and enemy nationals, X. did not participate in the performance of military research during World War II.
In 1945, Mr.. H. became a Canadian citizen and was appointed Professor Yerkes-tion Astronomical Observatory, University of Chicago (USA). With the help of students last year he was able to quickly equip subsequently renowned laboratory for the study of molecular spectra of stars, comets and planets. Using infrared imaging, he proved that in the atmosphere of some planets have hydrogen, but also confirmed the presence of water in comets. Three years later, he returned to Canada in the Department of Physics, Ottawa, National Research Council as the lead researcher. The following year he became director of the office, and in 1955. - Director of the department of fundamental physics. In 1969. He recognized Research Council Institute of Astrophysics outstanding scholar.
Up to 50-s X. studied the structure and properties of stable molecules. Since 50-ies he appeals to the more difficult spectral analysis of free radicals (atoms and molecules with at least one unpaired electron). Although their existence as intermediates in chemical reactions has been postulated free radicals due to its high reactivity and therefore small-time life has not yet been found. Trying to do it, X. and his colleagues used a flash photolysis techniques developed by Ronald Norrishem together with George Porter, in which light or other radiant energy causes a chemical decomposition. The researchers conducted their first successful spectroscopic experiments with free radical bromide in 1956, three years later - with the same methylene radical.
X. was awarded in 1971. Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "his contribution to the understanding of electronic structure and the structure of molecules, particularly free radicals'. In his speech at the presentation of Stig Klasson, a member of the Swedish Academy of Sciences, said that 'a truly elegant experimental studies X. together with their theoretical interpretation have contributed to the development of quantum mechanics, which was the decisive factor for the rapid development of molecular spectroscopy '. Klasson noted that about 1950 g. 'molecular spectroscopy has progressed so rapidly that it was possible to commence the study of more complex systems, which largely determined the further development of chemistry. This is brilliantly demonstrated in pioneering studies X. free radicals. Knowledge of their properties is of fundamental importance for understanding the occurrence of chemical processes'.
In 1929, Mr.. H. married Luise Oettinger, a physicist by profession, they have a son and daughter. After his wife died in 1971. He soon married to Monica Tenthof. H. was described by AE. Douglas, one of his colleagues on the Ottawa National Research Council, as' a dynamic scholar, a humble and generous man. "
X. Tori was awarded the Medal of the Royal Society of Canada (1953), . Gold Medal of the Canadian Association of Physicists (1957), . medals Willard Gibbs (1969) and Linus Pauling (1971) American Chemical Society, . Frederic Ives Medal of the American Optical Society and the Faraday Medal of the British Society of Chemistry (1971),
. In 1968. He became a Knight of the Order of Canada. In addition to membership in the physical and chemical associations, X. was head of the international commission on spectroscopy, president of the Canadian Association of Physicists (1956 ... 1957), International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (1957 ... 1963) and the Royal Society of Canada (1966 ... 1967).

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