Hinshelwood (Hinshelwood), Cyril N.( English chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1956)
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Biography Hinshelwood (Hinshelwood), Cyril N.
June 19, 1887, Mr.. - October 9, 1967
English chemist Cyril Norman Hinshelwood was born in London and was the only child of Ethel (nee Smith) and Norman Hinshelwood. His father, an accountant, moved his family to Canada for reasons of business, and also because of poor health, a boy. Cyril and his mother soon, shortly before the death of his elder Hinshelwood, followed in 1904, returned to England. H. visited London Westminster City School. In 1916, Mr.. he was awarded a scholarship at Balliol College, Oxford University, but the former in the midst of the First World War did not allow him to immediately take advantage of it. Instead, he entered the Kuinsferiyskuyu explosives factory, where, as the first 'malchikomvunderkindom', later became assistant chief chemist. Work at the factory for the production of solid explosives, awakened his interest in chemical kinetics, where he worked throughout his work.
Only in 1919. H. entered Oxford. As a student, he was sent to the British chemical company three articles that were accepted for publication. In 1920, Mr.. he becomes a graduate student at Balliol College, and in 1921. - Graduate student and associate professor at Trinity College. That, . what he called its 'integration of laboratories', . consisted of a few basements in Balliol College and a separate wing at Trinity College, . which served not only for research activities, . but also for the teaching of physical chemistry.,
. In the early 20-ies H., as Dzh.U
. Stratton, and Irving Langmuir in the prewar years, became interested in the applicability of the kinetic theory to explain the dynamics of chemical reactions occurring in the eyes of. Thermal decomposition of various gaseous organic compounds - is, as you know, either monomolecular or bimolecular reaction. In the latter case, the kinetic theory often gives a satisfactory explanation regarding the reasons for the reaction as the collision of two molecules. Much more difficult to imagine how a single molecule receives the necessary activation energy for the monomolecular reaction. It was proved that radiation exposure does not cause such reactions that the reaction rate does not depend on the number of molecules present. H. found the answer to this question in the activation of the collision. While most of his contemporaries has focused on specific reactions, it is based on data for a large number of reactions that led to the general provisions of such reactions. After the initiation of the idea of kvazimonomolekulyarnoy reaction he could have predicted, based on a certain relationship between the processes of activation and deactivation of the collision, whether this reaction is monomolecular or bimolecular.
X. including most of the data of this study in his first book, 'The kinetics of chemical reactions in gaseous systems' ( 'The Kinetics, of Chemical Change in Gaseous Systems', 1926). He felt that this book will reflect the first stage of three-stage, in his view, the process of creating a scientific theory. At the first stage there is 'sluggish oversimplification, only partially reflecting the need for practical application of laws and even overly enthusiastic pursuit of elegance of form'. Subsequent reactions lead to the second stage, which 'breaks the symmetry of the hypothetical systems and blurred definition language as a result of all the growing contradictions between the stubborn facts and dogmas'. H. believes that 'at the third stage, if it ever happens, will form a new, less obvious and more complicated construction, and part of it will be more finely woven, as it will be a natural concept, and not invented by man. "
. In 1927, Mr.
. H. began a detailed study of the reaction between gaseous hydrogen and oxygen. He showed that in a certain range of pressure the reaction proceeds very slowly, while outside this interval is very fast, explosively. Using the concept of chain or branched chain reactions, which his friend and colleague, Nikolai Semenov already applied to the process of oxidation of phosphorus, X. able to describe the reaction of oxygen with hydrogen.
Following the resignation of Frederick Soddy, in 1937, Mr.. H. at Oxford, inherited his position of Professor Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry. Along with his duties Tutor Exeter College X. continued his research in the laboratories of Balliol and Trinity College until 1941, when before it opened new opportunities. Although he is very bored by administrative duties, he had not deviated from their performance. Much attention to keeping Oxford's reputation as a renowned academic and research center, X. helped found the University a better balance between the Liberal Arts and Sciences. He supported the organic and physical chemist, developed their successful search, many of whom later became discoverers of new directions in theoretical chemistry and biology. As a member of the University of Oxford Publishing, defended the program of scientific publications, begun even before the Second World War.
In the late 30-ies X. began studying the process of bacterial growth using the methods of chemical kinetics, which became his main scientific direction. H. considered a living cell as a complex set of interconnected chemical reactions, which he likened to a 'set of simple musical themes, each of which is performed on a separate instrument ... The functioning of living cells depends on a combination of all these elements as in the symphony. Having some knowledge of the theory of simple elements, can we establish any rules of composition simfoniiN '. H. believed that the adaptation of bacteria to the environment occurs at the molecular level and, thus, the ability to adapt inherited. Although his model cell initially was in contradiction with the opinion of some biologists, many of his heretical ideas, now included in the theory of regulatory cells, played an important role in immunological studies.
. 'In studying the mechanism of chemical reactions', especially for the creation of the theory of chain reactions, X
. and Nikolai Semenov in 1956. were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. In his Nobel lecture X. praised the scientific activities of NN. Semenova: 'Study of the reaction of oxygen with hydrogen was the starting point, which resulted in my work at Oxford, came into direct contact with the work of Semenov. Our commitment to his ideas was immediately assessed, and the exchange of views at an early stage has allowed to establish friendly relations between the Semenov and me, who have since and continues'. H. highly respected for his teaching abilities, and characteristically, the majority of his speech at the prize was devoted to presenting some interesting questions that still await their investigators - young chemists theorists.
. After leaving in 1964
. post in Oxford X. moved into a house in London, where his mother lived after his return from Canada until his death in 1959. His attachment to the mother can explain why he never married. Being a senior researcher of Imperial College London, he continued research on bacterial growth, was a trustee of the British Museum and Chairman of the Board of Queen Elizabeth College in London,. H. was a great connoisseur of modern and classical literature, and knew at least eight foreign languages, including Greek and Latin. His students used to joke that he is for every summer vacation learns another foreign language. He was a member of the Oxford Dante Society and president of the Oxford offices and associations of modern and classical languages. Since 1921, ever since he became a professor at Trinity College, he began to paint with oil, using the small size of the palette, he received as a gift back in the age of nine. In 1968. for posthumous exhibition was presented more than 100 of his paintings, including the interiors of Oxford, landscapes countryside from London to Oxford and portraits. He is also interested in music, especially Beethoven and Mozart, Chinese porcelain and Persian carpets. H. died October 9, 1967, Mr.. London.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, X. was awarded the Davy Medal (1947) and the Copley Medal of Royal Society of London (1962). In 1948, Mr.. he was ennobled, he was awarded honorary degrees of many universities. He was a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences and a dozen other scientific societies. H. - Foreign Member of the USSR.