Staudinger (Staudinger), Herman( German chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1953)
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Biography Staudinger (Staudinger), Herman
March 23, 1881, Mr.. - September 8, 1965
German chemist Hermann Staudinger was born in Worms, in the family philosophy professor Franz Staudinger and Augusta (Wenk) Staudinger. SH. decided to become a botanist, but his father advised him to study chemistry before, believing that knowledge of this subject is useful W. in the chosen profession. SH. began to study chemistry at the University of Gallic, Germany, in 1899, immediately after school in Worms. But soon, when his father got a teaching position at the Technical University in Darmstadt, went to study there. Then for a short period of time was University of Munich, then - return to Gaul. The Gallic University under the guidance of Daniel Forlandera W. wrote a dissertation on the malonic esters of unsaturated compounds and in 1903. received his doctorate in organic chemistry.
After receiving his doctorate W. He was appointed assistant Johannes Thiele, a leading scientist in the chemistry of unsaturated organic compounds in the University of Strasbourg. During this period, W. opened KцTthen, possesses a high chemical activity of unsaturated ketone form, and is widely considered the new class of compounds. For this study it in 1907. received the right to work as a teacher. Then W. became an assistant professor at the Technical University in Karlsruhe, where he worked with renowned chemist Carl Engler, a specialist in chemical technology. Engler was also a consultant 'Baden Aniline and Soda Factory' (BASF), a large chemical company in Germany. BASF was interested in the synthesis of rubber, since the prices of natural rubber at that time improved continuously. So, buoyed by interest from BASF, W. in 1910. opened a new, simpler method for the synthesis of isoprene, the main component of natural rubber. Nevertheless, the main focus of research scientist studying remained KцTthen, which he conducted with the help of his student Leopold Ruzicka.
In 1912, Mr.. SH. became the successor of Richard Vilshtettera in the prestigious Federal Institute of Technology Zurich. During the First World War Z. and Ruzicka have studied the composition of the natural insecticide pyrethrin and receiving artificial pepper. Simultaneously W. I was searching for an artificial substitute for a naturally occurring drug atropine. Together with his student Tadeusz Reich-Stein, he conducted a study of chemical basis of aromatic and flavor characteristics of coffee and an artificial essence of coffee, . was used in Germany in wartime, . when the country was cut off from their usual suppliers because of the British naval blockade.,
. After the war, W
. returned to the study of natural rubber. Due to their, albeit short-lived, the work on the synthesis of isoprene in 1910. and pronesennoy childhood love of botany, he with a great deal of attention to the emerging work that way or another related to the structure of natural rubber. Today we know that natural rubber is a very large molecule with a molecular mass of about 1 million. During the same W. The prevailing view, which was based on a theory put forward by the German chemist Carl Harries. It was the fact that the rubber appears to be a single molecule, and a set of separate rings, each of which consists of two or more isoprene units. The existence of such apparently large molecules, the molecules of rubber and pulp, explained with the help mitsellarnoy theory according to which small molecules are held together by weak bonds and formed a set, called micelles.
. In 1917, Mr.
. SH. came to the conclusion that the concept of the structure of rubber, proposed by Harries, wrong. SH. argued that the molecule of natural rubber - a real, stable molecule, which consists of a chain of isoprene units, held together with simple connections, and contains thousands of atoms. Calling these large molecules are macromolecules, W. 3 years later summarized his ideas, creating a coherent theory of macromolecular structure of polymers - long-chain molecules consisting of a small number of repeated dozens or hundreds of times connections. Mitsellarnuyu reject the popular theory, placing itself under fire, was an act of great courage. But W. was then almost 40 years, and its prestige as the organic chemist was very high. Moreover, published results of a number of experimental studies conducted by other scientists in the next 4 years, it seemed, spoke in favor of mitsellarnoy theory.
W. was ambitious, and therefore, outlining a program of research to confirm its makromolekulyar-tion theory, took into account the effect of scientific opposition. In the period between the 20-mi and early 30-ies. SH. and his staff conducted numerous experiments to verify the existence of giant molecules. First, they 'make an assault' on the structure proposed by Harries. As supporters mitsellarnoy theory argued that molecular aggregates are held together by attraction between the double bonds in each ring, the elimination of the double bonds of the restoration (ie. of atoms of hydrogen) would cause the destruction of micelles and the appearance of liquid hydrocarbons. However, in the XIX century. Marseille French chemist Berthelot restored rubber and received a solid material, and in 1922. SH. confirmed his results. SH. restored as macromolecule polystyrene and again received no liquid hydrocarbons, as predicted mitsellarnoy theory.
In an effort to circumvent the difficulties associated with experimental study of highly complex natural polymers, W. decided to investigate the synthetic 'model' compounds. As a model for cellulose he chose polyoxymethylene (paraformaldehyde), to form a solid anticoagulant funds - formalin. Model for rubber was polystyrene. By 1930, Mr.. SH. gathered a considerable amount of experimental data confirming the existence of macromolecules and a very long polymer chains. He also confirmed that the polymer chains do not end with the free chemical bond, and the conventional chemical groups, which are taken from the surrounding solution or from the polymer. This important stage of research summarized by the scientists in his now-classic monograph 'High-molecular organic compounds, rubber and pulp' ( 'Die hochmolekularen organischen Verbindugen, Kautschuk und Cellulose'), published in 1932
. Viewpoint W
. many chemists continued to cause an objection, let alone supporters of mitsellarnoy theory - just a violent rejection. However, such a widespread cold attitude to his ideas did not prevent Z. in 1926. become director of chemical laboratories and a professor of the University of Freiburg. In the same year, Mark Herman presented a carefully selected W. experimental evidence and explanation of the analysis of X-ray crystallography at the annual conference of the Association of Germanic natural scientists and physicians in Dusseldorf. Speech by Mark convinced many chemists, including Willstatter, chaired the conference, the probability of the existence of extremely large molecules. Theory Z. found support, and for 9 years later, when the British F.S convened a symposium on polymers, acting on it consider the existence of macromolecules does not require proof.
Yet even W. misunderstood some aspects of the structure of macromolecules. As the scientist did not agree with the idea that the polymers are a combination of aggregates of small molecules, he decided that the macromolecules can in no way resemble micelles. Adhering to the view that the macromolecule - a rigid rods, W. criticized the experimental evidence gathered by Herman Mark and Friedrich Eyrihom, who pointed out that the polymers may exist in the form of flexible circuits, and in the form mitsellopodobnyh ligaments. Error W. brought him into conflict with other supporters of the theory of macromolecular. This split in the ranks of the defenders of the new theory at a time when it was still under fire from scientists, guided necessary for its protection and validation of force in a very unfortunate direction.
In the late 20-ies. SH. familiarized with the use of Theodor Svedberg ultracentrifuge, a new powerful tool for determining the molecular weight of proteins. Opening of the Svedberg, . that a small macromolecule, . eg hemoglobin molecule, . could have accurately determined molecular weight, . was an important support for the theory of C., . because mitsellarnaya theory predicts the variability of molecular weight,
. SH. realized that the method of Svedberg can provide valuable support to his theory, but the treatment W. to the authorities with a request to purchase the centrifuge was answered in the negative, reflecting the continuing skepticism in scientific circles for macromolecules. Having been refused, W. appealed to the viscosity of polymers in solution. Despite the well-established method for determining the molecular weight small molecules, this method is rarely applied to polymers. Working with solutions of polystyrene, W. showed that the viscosity of the polymer is directly proportional to its molecular weight, finding, thus, another refutation of the theory mitsellarnoy
During the 30-ies. SH. retained interest in the viscosity of polymer solutions. At the same time he took up a new topic of research - the study of complex biological macromolecules and the direct observation of macromolecules in the microscope.
In 40-ies. for W. established Research Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry at the University of Freiburg. After the Second World War Z. studied the relationship between structure and function of biological macromolecules, ie. worked on the research area, which is now known as molecular biology. In 1947, Mr.. he founded the magazine 'macromolecular chemistry' ( 'Makromolekulare Chemie'), and published a book 'macromolecular chemistry and biology' ( 'Makromolekulare Chemie und Biologie'), which expounded his views on the prospects for the development of molecular biology. However, by today's standards, his views are quite simplistic, and the work of the scientist in the postwar period, has not made a significant contribution to the development of molecular biology.
. In 1953, after a quarter century after the scientists carried out extensive work, W
. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for his research in the chemistry of macromolecular substances'. Perhaps the fact that W. so late was awarded the Nobel laureate, is an indication of the contradictions arising from the theory put forward by them. In his Nobel lecture 'macromolecular chemistry' ( 'Macro-molecular Chemistry') W. said: 'In the light of new knowledge in the field of macromolecular chemistry miracle of life in its chemical aspect opens in a surprising richness and perfect makromo-lecular architecture of living matter'. It is a pity that for W. completely unnoticed past events that occurred eight months earlier, and as if yavivsheesya visible evidence of spoken words: James D. Watson and Francis Crick published a report on the structure of the double helix DNA molecule.
In 1927, Mr.. SH. married Marge Voigt. Specializes in Plant Physiology, she became his trusted companion in the work. Infant couple did not have. A tall man with a quiet voice, W. attracted students from all over the world thanks to a rare combination of sensitivity, receptivity and intuition in the field of chemistry, as well as his fighting qualities, where it was the support of his theory. In 1951, Mr.. He retired from the University of Freiburg, becoming the head of the Research Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry. This position W. held until 1956. Died scientist at Freiburg on Sept. 8, 1965, Mr.. heart disease.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, W. has been awarded many prizes. Among them medal Emil Fischer Germanskogo Chemical Society (1930), Leblanc Medal of the French Chemical Society (1931) and Stanislao Cannizzaro prize of the Italian National Academy of Sciences (1933). He was an honorary doctor of the Technical University in Karlsruhe (in engineering) and the University of Mainz (science).