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Euler-Chelpin (Euler-Chelpin), Hans von

( German-Swedish biochemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1929)

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Biography Euler-Chelpin (Euler-Chelpin), Hans von
February 15, 1873, Mr.. - November 6, 1964
German-Swedish biochemist Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin Augsberge born in Germany and was the son of Gabriela von Euler-Chelpin (nee Firtner) and Rigas von Euler-Chelpin. Because after the birth of a boy his father, the captain of the Royal Bavarian regiment, was transferred to Munich, then Hans was sent to live with her grandmother in Wasserburg. His elementary education he received in Munich, Wц+rzburg and Ulm, and then in 1881. entered the Munich Academy of Painting. In the process of teaching art, he became interested in the problems of color, which subsequently led to the emergence of interest in research activities.
In 1893, Mr.. E. X. accepted the University of Munich, where he studied physics under the leadership of Emil Warburg and Max Planck and organic chemistry in Emil Fischer. In 1895, Mr.. in Munich, he received his doctorate. After a brief period of post-doctoral research in physical chemistry, he worked from 1896 to 1897. together with Walther Nernst at the University of GцTttingen. The following year he became an assistant in the laboratory of Svante Arrhenius at Stockholm University where in 1899. appointed assistant professor. During the same summer he continued his studies under the guidance of the Jacob van't Hoff and Eduard Buchner in Berlin, staying there until 1900
Upon his return to Stockholm ME-X. in 1902. received Swedish citizenship. During this period his research focused on the action of catalysts in the reactions of inorganic compounds, . but gradually his interests moved to the area of organic substances, . especially after, . he became acquainted with the research on the chemistry of fermentation Buchner,
. In 1906, Mr.. E. X. became professor of general and organic chemistry at Stockholm University, where he worked throughout his subsequent scientific work.
. When the First World War, he arranged to read a one-year course at Stockholm University for six months, and during the remaining six months will serve as a volunteer pilot in the German Army
. In 1916 and 1917. He participated in a military mission, established to increase the production of munitions to Turkey, which was an ally of Germany. During the last years of the war he commanded a squadron of bombers.
After the cessation of hostilities in 918 g. E. X. fully began to perform their duties on the faculty, as well as launched a study on the chemistry of enzymes, complex products of living cells, catalyzing specific biochemical reactions. He took special interest in the role of enzymes in fermentation. In this process, sugar molecules are split and recombine to form water, alcohol and carbon dioxide and thus provide the energy and basic material cell. At that time, was little known about this process, except for certain facts, previously obtained Buchner and English chemist Arthur whip.
In 1896, Mr.. Buchner showed that the liquid formed by the yeast cells, can induce fermentation, although it does not contain living yeast cells. Buchner also found that one component of this liquid, an enzyme called Zymase, causes the splitting of glucose molecules to fragments hexose (basic sugars). Based on the work of Buchner, Garden understood that zymase consists of two components, each of which is important for the fermentation process. At the first stage of the process, believed Garden, a molecule of sugar combines with phosphate ions (contains one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms). Pending the completion of the fermentation process to regenerate phosphate-free status. Garden hypothesized that fermentation can begin only when the two molecules of phosphate proreagiruuyut with two molecules of hexose.
E. X. convinced that to make the enzyme able to carry out their functions, he must first contact with the molecule, which should affect (substrate). To understand the chemical process of fermentation, it is necessary to identify each of the existing substrates at all stages of the process. For this, he added, the metal atoms in solution, in which the fermentation proceeded, and in this way slows down the process at some stage, which enabled him to analyze all stages.
. If the Garden suggested that two molecules of hexose phosphate anion and two together with the formation of alcohol, carbon dioxide, water and phosphorus compounds, which he called zimodifosfatom, the ME-X
. realized that the reaction proceeds much more complicated. He showed that the fragments of two molecules of hexose obtained by the splitting of sugar molecules, are different. One of the fragments of more energy-rich than the other. Moreover, the phosphate is attached to the fragment with less energy, and it is this fragment, consistently ripping into a zimodifosfat.
In addition to tracking the conversion of phosphate, EG-X. established the chemical nature of non-protein component Zymase, which he called kozimaza, and the task was complicated by its extremely small size. Using multi-stage cleaning process carried out with experimental skill, he received a highly concentrated solution kozimazy and determined its molecular weight. He found that kozimaza contains fragments of sugar, phosphoric acid and crystals of a chemical called purines. He also found that kozimaza a constitutive component of enzymes that regulate the efficiency of hydrogen transport into the cells and thus influence the process of respiration.
. 'For a study on the fermentation of sugar fermentation and enzymes' цT-X
. and the Garden were awarded in 1929. Nobel Prize in Chemistry. In his speech at the presentation of a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences X.G. Sederbaum knowledge of the fermentation process called 'one of the most complex and difficult problems of chemistry'. By allowing it, said Sederbaum, E.-H., Garden, and their colleagues have made it possible 'to obtain important conclusions regarding the basic principles of carbohydrate metabolism of both plants and animals in organisms'.
. Work is also in the other direction and collaborating with Paul Karrer, E.-X
. studied vitamins, whose chemical structure was only later identified by such researchers as Karrer, Walter H. Haworth and Richard Kuhn. Throughout his research цT-X. continued to engage in biomedical research, focusing especially on the enzymes. In 1935. He began research on the biochemistry of cancer. In collaboration with Georg (GyцTrgy) de Hevesy, he developed a method for labeling nucleic acids located in the tumor, to monitor their behavior.
In 1902, Mr.. E. X. married Astrid Cleve, who for years served the scientific work together with him. They had five children, one of them, Ulf von Euler, was a famous physiologist. Once they are in 1912. parted, E.-X. married Baroness Elizabeth Uggla, with whom he had four children. E. X. died Nov. 6, 1964, Mr.. Stockholm.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, EG-X. was awarded the Grand Cross of the Federal Service of Germany (1959). He was awarded an honorary degree from University of Stockholm, Zurich, Athens, Kiel, Bern, Turin and New Brunswick. He was a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences and the Finnish Academy of Sciences and a foreign member of many scientific and professional societies.

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